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UPDATING THE USDA NATIONAL Breastfeeding Campaign Workshop Summary Paula Tarnapol Whitacre and Sheila Moats, Rapporteurs Food and Nutrition Board

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by Contract No. AG-3198-C-10-0017 between the Na- tional Academy of Sciences and U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-21919-8 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-21919-1 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap. edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent ad- opted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2011. Updating the USDA Na- tional Breastfeeding Campaign: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The Na- tional Academies Press.

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“Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.” — Goethe Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding en- gineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Coun- cil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR UPDATING THE USDA NATIONAL BREASTFEEDING CAMPAIGN: A WORKSHOP* RAFAEL PÉREZ-ESCAMILLA (Chair), Professor of Epidemiology & Public Health, and Director, Office of Community Health, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven KARAN DIMARTINO, Marketing and Outreach Manager, Nutrition Division, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Boston GAIL G. HARRISON, Professor, School of Public Health, and Director, Center for Global and Immigrant Health, University of California, Los Angeles M. JANE HEINIG, Executive Director and Academic Administrator, Human Lactation Center, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis JAMES H. LINDENBERGER, Director, Center for Social Marketing at the College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa CAROLE PETERSON, Coordinator, Indiana Regional Lactation Center and Tippecanoe/White County WIC Program, National WIC Association Breastfeeding Committee Chairperson, Lafayette Study Staff SHEILA MOATS, Study Director JULIA HOGLUND, Research Associate HEATHER BREINER, Program Associate ANTON L. BANDY, Financial Associate GERALDINE KENNEDO, Administrative Assistant LINDA D. MEYERS, Director, Food and Nutrition Board *Institute of Medicine planning committees (IOM) are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution. v

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Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with pro- cedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Adam Burns, Strategic Planning and Research, Porter Novelli, Washington, DC Gail G. Harrison, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles Hope Kenefick, HWK Consulting, Barrington, NH Carol A. MacGowan, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, Atlanta, GA Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Hugh H. Tilson, University of North Carolina. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Re- sponsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution. vii

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Contents OVERVIEW 1 1 Opening Session 5 2 What Has Changed? 15 3 Lessons Learned from Other Social Marketing and Breastfeeding Campaigns 33 4 Where Does the Breastfeeding Campaign Go from Here? 55 5 Responses and Concluding Remarks 75 APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 83 B Planning Committee and Speaker Biographical Sketches 87 C Workshop Attendees 97 D Abbreviations and Acronyms 99 E Excerpts from Comments Received on the Institute of Medicine’s Website for the Workshop to Update the USDA National Breastfeeding Campaign 101 ix

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