Thorne Lay (Chair) is distinguished professor of earth and planetary sciences at the University of California, Santa Cruz, where he was founding director of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics and is currently director of the Center for the Study of Imaging and Dynamics of the Earth. His primary research interests involve analysis of seismic waves to interrogate the deep structure of Earth’s interior and to study the physics of earthquake faulting. This involves imaging structures associated with internal dynamics of the mantle, particularly the core-mantle boundary region and the vicinity of the subducting lithosphere. Earthquake-related investigations include waveform modeling of body and surface waves to determine the nature of faulting and to develop seismic models for the entire rupture process. He also studies nuclear explosion sources to provide improved means for monitoring low-threshold test ban treaties. Dr. Lay has more than 240 peer-reviewed publications, he received the Macelwane Medal from the American Geophysical Union in 1991, and he is a Lifetime National Associate of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Lay is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is also past chair of the Board of Directors of Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology and previously held a faculty position at the University of Michigan from 1984 to 1989. Dr. Lay received a B.S. from the University of Rochester in 1978 and an M.S. and a Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology in 1980 and 1983, respectively.
Michael L. Bender (NAS) is a professor of geosciences at Princeton University, where he has been since 1997. His research focuses on glacial-interglacial climate change and the global carbon cycle. This involves measuring gas properties in ice cores to date critical climate changes of the ice ages. His carbon cycle research involves characterizing the fertility of ecosystems at the global scale, at the scale of ocean basins, and at regional to local scales within the oceans. Dr. Bender is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and is a recipient of the Patterson Medal of the Geochemical Society. He has served on numerous editorial boards and committees, including as chair of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s CO2 Observations Advisory Group (1999-2001) and the National Science Foundation’s (NSF’s) Ice Core Working Group (1990-1997). Prior to joining Princeton, he was a professor of oceanography at the University of Rhode Island (1972-1997). Dr. Bender received a B.S. in chemistry from the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1965 and a Ph.D. in geology from Columbia University in 1970.
Suzanne Carbotte is the Heezen Lamont Research Professor at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University, where she has been since 1993. Her research focuses on the formation of oceanic crust at the global midocean ridge, using a variety of marine geophysical techniques. Current work involves application of seismic methods to study the alteration of the crust that occurs as a result of fluid-rock interactions on the Juan de Fuca plate and the origin of the segmentation of midocean ridges. Nearer to shore,
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Appendix C Committee and Staff Biographies COMMITTEE MEMBERS Michael L. Bender (NAS) is a professor of geosciences at Princeton University, where he has been since 1997. Thorne Lay (Chair) is distinguished professor of earth His research focuses on glacial-interglacial climate and planetary sciences at the University of California, change and the global carbon cycle. This involves mea- Santa Cruz, where he was founding director of the suring gas properties in ice cores to date critical climate Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics and changes of the ice ages. His carbon cycle research is currently director of the Center for the Study of involves characterizing the fertility of ecosystems at the Imaging and Dynamics of the Earth. His primary global scale, at the scale of ocean basins, and at regional research interests involve analysis of seismic waves to to local scales within the oceans. Dr. Bender is a fellow interrogate the deep structure of Earth’s interior and to of the American Geophysical Union and is a recipient study the physics of earthquake faulting. This involves of the Patterson Medal of the Geochemical Society. imaging structures associated with internal dynamics He has served on numerous editorial boards and com- of the mantle, particularly the core-mantle boundary mittees, including as chair of the National Oceanic region and the vicinity of the subducting lithosphere. and Atmospheric Administration’s CO2 Observations Earthquake-related investigations include waveform Advisory Group (1999-2001) and the National Science modeling of body and surface waves to determine the Foundation’s (NSF’s) Ice Core Working Group (1990- nature of faulting and to develop seismic models for the 1997). Prior to joining Princeton, he was a professor of entire rupture process. He also studies nuclear explosion oceanography at the University of Rhode Island (1972- sources to provide improved means for monitoring low- 1997). Dr. Bender received a B.S. in chemistry from the threshold test ban treaties. Dr. Lay has more than 240 Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1965 and a Ph.D. peer-reviewed publications, he received the Macelwane in geology from Columbia University in 1970. Medal from the American Geophysical Union in 1991, and he is a Lifetime National Associate of the National Suzanne Carbotte is the Heezen Lamont Research Academy of Sciences. Dr. Lay is a fellow of the American Professor at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observa- Geophysical Union, the American Association for the tory at Columbia University, where she has been since Advancement of Science, and the American Academy 1993. Her research focuses on the formation of oceanic of Arts and Sciences. He is also past chair of the Board crust at the global midocean ridge, using a variety of of Directors of Incorporated Research Institutions for marine geophysical techniques. Current work involves Seismology and previously held a faculty position at application of seismic methods to study the alteration the University of Michigan from 1984 to 1989. Dr. Lay of the crust that occurs as a result of fluid-rock inter- received a B.S. from the University of Rochester in 1978 actions on the Juan de Fuca plate and the origin of and an M.S. and a Ph.D. from the California Institute of the segmentation of midocean ridges. Nearer to shore, Technology in 1980 and 1983, respectively. 113
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114 APPENDIX C Dr. Carbotte applies marine geophysical techniques to tions, snow depth, and vegetation. She has studied plate study sedimentary processes and to characterize benthic boundary zone deformation in Alaska, Nepal, Tibet, habitats in the estuarine setting, including the link- Ethiopia, California, and Mexico. Dr. Larson’s research ages between rising sea level and climate fluctuations has also emphasized engineering development by push- with the changing faunal populations documented ing the temporal sampling of GPS to subdaily intervals in the river sediments. She has served on numer - for studies of earthquakes, volcanoes, and ice sheet ous national committees, including the NSF-funded dynamics. She served as editor of Geophysical Research Ridge 2000 steering committee (2002-2007), ORION Letters from 2002 to 2004. She was elected a fellow of Cyberinfrastructure Committee (2005-2007), and the the American Geophysical Union in 2011. Dr. Larson Ocean Observing Science Committee (2010-present). received her A.B. in engineering sciences from Harvard Dr. Carbotte received a B.S. in geology and physics University in 1985 and her Ph.D. in geophysics from from the University of Toronto in 1982; an M.Sc. in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of geophysics at Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, California, San Diego, in 1990. in 1986; and a Ph.D. in marine geophysics from the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1992. Timothy Lyons is a professor of biogeochemistry in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University Kenneth A. Farley is chair of the Division of Geologi- of California, Riverside, where he has been since 2005. cal and Planetary Sciences and W. M. Keck Foundation His research interests are in marine geochemistry and Professor of Geochemistry at the California Institute of geobiology; biogeochemical cycles through time; earth Technology, where he has been since 1993. His research history and paleoclimate; and astrobiology linked to is focused on the use of noble gas concentrations and career-long interests in anoxic marine environments, isotopic ratios and addresses problems in a range of early atmospheric oxygenation, and co-evolving life. disciplines of the Earth sciences. Current interests His research includes the development and refinement include (1) development and application of tech- of diverse geochemical proxies in modern settings for niques for assessing the cooling history of rocks from study of the ancient ocean. Dr. Lyons is a fellow of the in-growth and diffusion of radiogenic helium-4, the Geological Society of America and the American (2) improved analytical techniques for measurement of Association for the Advancement of Science and the cosmogenic noble gases and experimental investigation recipient of an NSF CAREER Award. He has been a of the processes by which these isotopes are produced, visiting scholar at the Royal Netherlands Institute of and (3) identifying major events in the recent history Sea Research, the University of Queensland, the Uni- of the solar system using extraterrestrial helium-3 in versity of Tasmania (Comet Fellow), the Max Planck seafloor sediments. He was director of the CalTech Institute for Marine Microbiology (Hanse Fellow), and Tectonic Observatory and received the Macelwane Cambridge University (Leverhulme Visiting Professor- Medal from the American Geophysical Union in 1999 ship), and he was the first Agassiz Lecturer at Harvard and the National Academy of Sciences Award for Ini- University. Dr. Lyons has served on numerous steering tiatives in Research in 2000. Dr. Farley received a B.S. and organizing committees, including service to the in chemistry from Yale University in 1986 and a Ph.D. Goldschmidt Conference of the Geochemical Society, in earth science from the Scripps Institution of Ocean- the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, and funding ography, University of California, San Diego, in 1991. panels spanning four programs within NSF, two within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kristine M. Larson is a professor of aerospace engi- (NASA) and one within the American Chemical Soci- neering sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder. ety. Dr. Lyons has served in eight editorial positions, Dr. Larson’s research focuses on using high-precision including a long-standing affiliation with Geochimica et global positioning system (GPS) techniques to address Cosmochimica Acta and a new relationship with Global a range of geophysical issues that include measuring Biogeochemical Cycles, and he has served on an American and interpreting crustal deformation as well as using Geological Union editorial advisory board. He is active geodetic techniques for measuring soil moisture varia- within the NASA Astrobiology Institute, the Agouron
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115 APPENDIX C Institute, and the Southern California geobiology atmospheric composition and paleoclimatic conditions, community. Dr. Lyons received a B.S. in geological in particular in reconstructing records of greenhouse engineering from the Colorado School of Mines, an gas-climate linkages during periods of major climate M.S. in geology from the University of Arizona, and a transitions. Her past work has involved study of marine Ph.D. in geology/geochemistry from Yale University. and terrestrial successions of the Cambrian through Pleistocene ages. Dr. Montañez received her Ph.D. in Michael Manga is a professor in the Department geology from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State of Earth and Planetary Science at the University of University. She is a fellow of the Geological Society California, Berkeley, where he has been since 2001. His of America and a current Guggenheim Fellow. She research focuses on processes involving fluids, includ- chaired the National Research Council Committee on ing problems in physical volcanology, geodynamics, the Importance of Deep-Time Geologic Records for and hydrogeology using combinations of theoretical, Understanding Climate Change Impacts (2010-2011). numerical, and experimental approaches. His research integrates laboratory and field observations (both David R. Montgomery is professor of geomorphol- of active processes and recorded in the geological ogy in the Department of Earth and Space Sciences record) with theoretical and model results and typically at the University of Washington, where he has been involves new contributions in applied fluid mechanics. since 1991. His research focuses on fluvial and hillslope He received the Macelwane Medal from the Ameri- processes in mountain drainage basins, the evolution can Geophysical Union in 2002, the Donath Medal of mountain ranges (Cascades, Andes, and Himalaya), from the Geological Society of America in 2003, and analysis of digital topography, interpretation of martian a MacArthur Fellowship in 2005. He has served on landforms, and linkages between geomorphological numerous editorial boards (Reviews of Geophysics, Jour- processes and ecological systems. Dr. Montgomery nal of Geophysical Research, Geology). He was an assistant has authored more than 100 peer-reviewed scientific professor at the University of Oregon from 1996 to papers and 2 award-winning popular books, Dirt: The 2001. Dr. Manga received a B.S. from McGill Univer- Erosion of Civilizations (University of California Press, sity in 1990 and an S.M. and a Ph.D. from Harvard Berkeley, 2007) and King of Fish: The Thousand-Year University in 1992 and 1994, respectively. Run of Salmon (Basic Books, New York, 2003). He received a B.S. in geology from Stanford University in Ho-kwang (Dave) Mao (NAS) is a geophysicist and 1984; a Ph.D. in geomorphology from the University senior staff scientist at the Carnegie Institution of of California, Berkeley, in 1991; and a MacArthur Washington, where he has been for his entire career. Fellowship in 2008. His research involves the development and application of ultra-high-pressure technology to physics, chemistry, Paul E. Olsen (NAS) is the Storke Memorial Profes- materials science, geophysics, geochemistry, and plan- sor of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia etary sciences. He is the recipient of numerous awards, U niversity’s Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, including the 2007 Inge Lehmann Medal from the where he has been since 1984. His research focuses on American Geophysical Union and the 2005 Roebling the evolution of continental ecosystems, especially the Medal from the Mineralogical Society of America. pattern, causes, and effects of climate change on geolog- Dr. Mao earned a B.S. in geology from the National ical timescales, mass extinctions, effects of evolutionary Taiwan University in 1963 and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in innovations on biogeochemical cycles, and evolution geology from the University of Rochester in 1966 and of the solar system as revealed by geological records. 1968, respectively. He has authored more than 170 publications and has appeared in numerous documentaries on the history Isabel P. Montañez is a professor in the Department of life and climate. He serves on the Board of Direc- of Geology at the University of California, Davis. tors of the Drilling, Observation and Sampling of the Dr. Montañez is a field geologist and geochemist whose Earths Continental Crust organization and has served research focuses on the sedimentary archive of paleo- on numerous NSF panels and steering committees. He
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116 APPENDIX C received a B.A. in geology and a Ph.D. in biology from Dongxiao (Don) Zhang is the Marshall Professor of Yale University in 1978 and 1984, respectively. Water Resources and Petroleum Engineering in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Peter L. Olson (NAS) is a professor of geophysical Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials fluid dynamics in the Department of Earth and Plane- S cience, University of Southern California, Los tary Sciences at Johns Hopkins University, where he has Angeles, where he has been since 2007. His research been since 1977. Dr. Olson combines theory, numerical focuses on the stochastic uncertainty quantification for models, and laboratory fluid dynamics models to inter- hydrology and petroleum reservoir simulations, multi- pret global geophysical data pertaining to Earth’s deep scale modeling and simulation of flow in porous media, interior in order to better understand how the mantle and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. He is a and core interact to produce plate tectonics, deep man- fellow of the Geological Society of America, the author tle plumes, and the geomagnetic field. Dr. Olson has of two books, and serves as associate editor for five jour- served on numerous national and international com- nals, including Water Resources Research and the Journal mittees, including the Computational Infrastructure of Computational Geosciences. Dr. Zhang was a senior for Geodynamics Executive Committee and the U.S. scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory (1996- National Committee on Studies of Earth’s Deep Inte- 2004) and held the Miller Chair at the Mewbourne rior. Dr. Olson is a fellow of the American Geophysical School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering at Union, an honorary fellow of the European Union of the University of Oklahoma (2004-2007). He also Geosciences, and a fellow of the American Academy of served as a Chang Jiang (guest chair) Professor at Arts and Sciences. Dr. Olson received a B.A. in geology Nanjing University and is a founding associate dean from the University of Colorado, Boulder, in 1972 and at the College of Engineering of Peking University in an M.A. and a Ph.D. in geophysics from the University China. Dr. Zhang received a B.S. in engineering from of California, Berkeley, in 1974 and 1977, respectively. Northeastern University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in hydrology from Patricia L. Wiberg is professor and chair of the Depart- the University of Arizona. ment of Environmental Sciences at the University of V irginia, where she has been since 1990. Her research NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF focuses on sediment transport dynamics on the conti- nental shelf and tidal salt marshes and in lagoons and Mark D. Lange is a program officer with the National the effects of climate change on coastal systems. This R esearch Council’s Board on Earth Sciences and includes post-depositional alteration and preservation Resources and is director of the Geographical Sciences of sedimentary strata, transport of sediment-associated Committee. He is a geomorphologist with expertise in contaminants, and evolution of lagoon bottom habitat. river and coastal processes, Geographic Information Dr. Wiberg has served as associate editor for the Jour- System applications, and science policy. He began his nal of Sedimentary Research and Journal of Geophysical career with the U.S. Geological Survey’s Coastal and Research–Earth Surface, has served on the MARGINS Marine Geology program in California. He was a steering committee, and is a member of the Executive Tyler Environmental Fellow and a U.S. congressional Committee and chair of the Marine Working Group of fellow, where he managed federal environmental and Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System. She natural resources policy for a member of Congress. He also chaired the American Geophysical Union’s Infor- is a member of the American Geophysical Union and mation Technology Committee. Dr. Wiberg received the Association of American Geographers and holds a B.A. in mathematics from Brown University and an a Ph.D. from the University of Southern California. M.S. and a Ph.D. in oceanography from the University of Washington. Jason R. Ortego i s a research associate with the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources. He received
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117 APPENDIX C a B.A. in English from Louisiana State University Courtney R. Gibbs is a program associate with the in 2004 and an M.A. in international affairs from Board on Earth Sciences and Resources. She received a George Washington University in 2008. He began degree in graphic design from the Pittsburgh Technical working for the National Academies in 2008 with Institute in 2000 and began working for the National the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Academies in 2004. Prior to her work with the board, and in 2009 he joined the Board on Earth Sciences Ms. Gibbs supported the Nuclear and Radiation Studies and Resources. Board and the former Board on Radiation Effects Research.
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