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References Affek, H.P., M. Bar-Matthews, A. Ayalon, A. Matthews, and J.M. Batt, G.E., and J. Braun. 1999. The tectonic evolution of the Eiler. 2008. Glacial/interglacial temperature variations in Soreq Southern Alps, New Zealand: Insights from fully thermally cave speleothems as recorded by “clumped isotope” thermometry. coupled dynamical modelling. Geophysical Journal International Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72(22):5351-5360. 136:403-420. AGI (American Geological Institute). 2009. Status of the Geoscience Beaumont, C., P. Kamp, J. Hamilton, and P. Fullsack. 1996. The con- Workforce: Report Summary. Alexandria, VA: AGI. tinental collision zone, South Island, New Zealand: Comparison AGU (American Geophysical Union). 2009. AGU Position State- of geodynamical models and observations. Journal of Geophysical ment: Geoengineering the Climate System. Available online at Research 101:3333-3359. www.agu.org/sci_pol/positions/geoengineering.shtml. Beaumont, C., R.A. Jamieson, M.H. Nguyen, and B. Lee. 2001. Ahnert, F. 1970. Functional relationship between denudation, relief Himalayan tectonics explained by extrusion of a low-viscosity and uplift in large mid-latitude drainage basins. American Journal crustal channel coupled to focused surface denudation. Nature of Science 268:243-263. 414:738-742. Alboussiere, T., R. Deguen, and M. Melzani. 2010. Melting-induced Beaumont, C., R.A. Jamieson, M.H. Nguyen, and S. Medvedev. stratification above the Earth’s inner core due to convective 2004. Crustal channel flows: 1. Numerical models with applica- translation. Nature 466:744-747. tions to the tectonics of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. Journal AMS (American Meteorological Society). 2009. AMS Position of Geophysical Research 109:B06406. Statement: Geoengineering the Climate System. Available on- Beerling, D.J., B.H. Lomax, D.L. Royer, G.R. Upchurch, Jr., and line at www.ametsoc.org/policy/2009geoengineeringclimate_ L.R. Kump. 2003. An atmospheric pCO2 reconstruction across amsstatement.html. the cretaceous-tertiary boundary from leaf megafossils. P roceed- Appel, P.W.U., C.M. Fedo, and J.S. Myers. 2001. Depositional set- ings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99(12):7836-7840. ting and paleogeographic implications of Earth’s oldest supra- Bercovici, D., and S.-I. Karato. 2003. Whole-mantle convection and crustal rocks, the >3.7 Ga Isua Greenstone belt, West Greenland. the transition-zone water filter. Nature 425:39-44. Sedimentary Geology 141:61-77. Berger, A.L., S.P.S. Gulick, J.A. Spotila, P. Upton, J.M. Jaeger, J.B. Arneth, A., S.P. Harrison, S. Zaehle, K. Tsigaridis, S. Memom, P.J. Chapman, L.A. Worthington, T.L. Pavlis, K.D. Ridgway, B.A. Bartlein, J. Feitcher, A. Korhola, M. Kulmala, D. O’Donnell, W illems, and R.J. McAleer. 2008. Quaternary tectonic response G. Schurgers, S. Sorvari, and T. Vesala. 2010. Terrestrial bio- to intensified glacial erosion in an orogenic wedge. Nature Geo- geochemical feedbacks in the climate system. Nature Geoscience science 1:793-799. 3:525-530. Berner, R.A., and Z. Kothavala. 2001. GEOCARB III: A revised Aufdenkampe, A.K., E. Mayorga, P.A. Raymond, J.M. Melack, model of atmospheric CO2 over phanerozoic time. American S.C. Doney, S.R. Alin, R.E. Aalto, and K. Yoo. 2011. Riverine Journal of Science 301(2):182-204. coupling of biogeochemical cycles between land, oceans, and Billups, K., J.E.T. Channell, and J. Zachos. 2002. Late Oligocene atmosphere. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9:53-60. to early Miocene geochronology and paleoceanography from Bala, G. 2009. Problems with geoengineering schemes to combat the subantarctic South Atlantic. Paleoceanography 17(1):1004. climate change. Current Science 96:41-48. Birch, E.R., and P.W. Miller. 2007. The characteristics of “gap-year” Barbier, E.B., E.W. Koch, B.R. Silliman, S.D. Hacker, E. Wolanski, students and their tertiary academic outcomes. Economic Record J. Primavera, E.F. Granek, S. Polasky, S. Aswani, L.A. Cramer, 83:329-344. D.M. Stoms, C.J. Kennedy, D. Bael, C.V. Kappel, G.M.E. Bohaty, S.M., and J.C. Zachos, 2003. Significant Southern Ocean Perillo, and D.J. Reed. 2008. Coastal ecosystem-based manage- warming event in the late middle Eocene. Geology 31(11):1017- ment with nonlinear ecological functions and values. Science 1020. 319:321-323. 87

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