centrations of antimicrobial drugs that would kill otherwise sensitive organisms of the same strain. The phrase is also used to describe any pathogen that is less susceptible than its counterparts to a specific antimicrobial compound (or combination thereof).

Apoptosis: A process of programmed cell death by which cells undergo an ordered sequence of events which lead to death of the cell, as occurs during growth and development of the organism, as a part of normal cell aging, or as a response to cellular injury.

Aptamer: An oligonucleotide or peptide molecule that binds to a specific target molecule.

Artemisinin: Also known as qinghaosu, its derivatives are a group of drugs that possess the most rapid action of all current drugs against falciparum malaria.

β-Lactam antibiotics: A broad class of antibiotics that include penicillin derivatives (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, and carbapenems, that is, any antibiotic agent that contains a β-lactam nucleus in its molecular structure. They are the most widely used group of antibiotics.

β-Lactamase: A type of enzyme produced by some bacteria that is responsible for their resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, and carbapenems.

Bacteria: Microscopic, single-celled organisms that have some biochemical and structural features different from those of animal and plant cells.

Bacteriophage: A virus that infects bacteria.

BioBricks: Standard biological parts—DNA sequences of defined structure and function—that share a common interface and are designed to be composed and incorporated into living cells such as E. coli to construct new biological systems. BioBrick parts represent an effort to introduce the engineering principles of abstraction and standardization into synthetic biology.

Biocontrol: Method of controlling pests (including insects, mites, weeds, and diseases) in plants that relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms.

Biofilms: Bacterial communities that adhere to biotic or abiotic surfaces. These microorganisms are usually encased in an extracellular polysaccharide matrix that



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