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Contents Summary 1 1 Equity and Transportation Finance 5 Role of Equity in the Evolution of U.S. Surface Transportation Finance 7 Legal and Policy Framework for Equity 11 Charge to the Committee 14 Committee’s Approach 16 Organization of the Report 18 2 How Transportation Is Funded and Who Pays 21 Taxonomy of Transportation Funding Approaches 22 Who Ultimately Pays? 33 Chapter Highlights 35 3 Equity Through Different Lenses 39 Equity Concepts 40 Categories of People 44 Equity Assessment 49 Distributions of Burdens and Benefits 53 Chapter Highlights 61

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4 Transportation Finance Equity: Evidence and Experience 67 Evidence on Equity in Road Finance 67 Evidence on Equity in Transit Finance 79 Remedying Inequities 81 Opportunities to Fill Knowledge Gaps 88 Chapter Highlights 93 5 Equity and Decision Making: Experience with Road Pricing 102 Equity in Debates over Road Pricing 102 The Role of Public Opinion 108 Lessons Learned from Real-Life Experience 116 Chapter Highlights 124 6 Findings and Recommendations 129 Dimensions of Equity 130 Equity of Evolving Finance Mechanisms 132 Remedying Inequities 134 Measuring Equity 135 Issues for Policy Makers to Consider 136 Recommendations for Public Policy Makers and Their Staff 139 Research Needs 141 Recommendations for Researchers and Analysts 144 Sources of Funding for Recommended Actions 147 Concluding Remarks 149 Appendices A Legal Basis for Social Impact Assessment and Environmental Justice Considerations in Transportation Decision Making, Planning, Policy, and Projects 151 B Committee Meetings and Other Activities 158 C Commissioned Papers and Authors 161 D Symposium Agenda and Participants 162

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E National Surface Transportation Infrastructure Financing Commission’s Assessment of the Equity of Finance Mechanisms 167 Study Committee Biographical Information 168

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