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Study Committee Biographical Information Joseph L. Schofer, Chair, is Professor of Civil and Environmental Engi- neering and Associate Dean of the Robert R. McCormick School of Engi- neering and Applied Science at Northwestern University and Director of Northwestern’s Infrastructure Technology Institute. He chaired the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering from 1997 to 2002 and was director of research and interim director of the Transportation Center for various periods until 2008. Dr. Schofer’s research interests focus on planning and management of transportation systems, particularly the provision and use of data and information for effective decision making and evaluation of systems, plans, and projects. His current research includes studies of the sustainability of transportation systems, decision support for infrastructure preservation and rehabilitation, privatization of transporta- tion facilities, and transportation policy. Working through the Transporta- tion Research Board (TRB), Dr. Schofer is actively engaged in planning and implementation of conferences and workshops focused on data and infor- mation resources for transportation planning and management. He is a member of the Strategic Highway Research Program 2 Technical Coordi- nating Committee for Capacity Research, and he serves on several TRB standing committees and cooperative research program project panels. He chaired the National Research Council Committee to Review the Bureau of Transportation Statistics’ Survey Programs, which produced the report Measuring Personal Travel and Goods Movement: A Review of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics’ Surveys. Dr. Schofer is a member of the Conges- tion Pricing Technical Group for the Chicago Civic Consulting Alliance, the Mayor’s Pedestrian Advisory Committee (Chicago), the Transportation Committee of the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning, the Citizen’s Advisory Board of Pace (the suburban Chicago bus service provider), and 168

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Study Committee Biographical Information 169 other advisory boards. He earned a BE from Yale University and an MS and a PhD from Northwestern University, all in civil engineering. Jeffrey N. Buxbaum is a principal with Cambridge Systematics, Inc., in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he leads the tolling and road-pricing practice. He has 29 years of experience in transportation planning and pol- icy analysis and specializes in policy and technical studies related to trans- portation finance and road pricing and in traffic and revenue studies for highways and bridges. He has led transportation projects addressing area- wide and corridor-level planning, traffic engineering, and financial plan- ning. Mr. Buxbaum was principal investigator for a National Cooperative Highway Research Program synthesis study of key elements for public- sector decision making in public–private partnerships and was the princi- pal investigator for a similar study funded by the University of Southern California’s Keston Institute entitled “Protecting the Public Interest: The Role of Long-Term Concession Agreements for Providing Transportation Infrastructure.” He led the Washington State Comprehensive Tolling Study, which examined the short-, medium-, and long-term roles that tolling could play in raising revenue and managing congestion, and a sim- ilar study for Connecticut. Mr. Buxbaum has also investigated the future of tolling in Oregon and worked with Oregon on policy questions sur- rounding tolling. He also led a study of a potential system of express toll lanes for the Twin Cities for the Minnesota Department of Transportation. In addition, he supported the Massachusetts Transportation Finance Com- mission in its efforts to create a sustainable transportation finance system for the commonwealth and contributed to studies for the Federal Highway Administration, the Hudson Institute, and the U.S. Chamber Foundation. Mr. Buxbaum is a member of the Transportation Research Board Com- mittee on Congestion Pricing. He earned a BS in civil engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. William A. V. Clark is Professor of Geography and Statistics in the Department of Geography at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He chaired the department from 1987 to 1991, and again from 1995 to 1997, and was associate director of UCLA’s Institute for Social Sci- ence Research from 1977 to 1981. His other former positions include Belle Van Zuylen Professor at the University of Utrecht and Visiting Professor

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170 Equity of Evolving Transportation Finance Mechanisms of Geography at the Free University of Amsterdam, both in the Nether- lands. Dr. Clark’s research over the past two decades has addressed the internal changes in U.S. cities, notably the changes that occur in response to residential mobility and migration. His large-scale studies of demo- graphic change in the neighborhoods of large metropolitan areas have examined the nature of population flows between cities and suburbs, white flight, and the impact of legal intervention on the urban mosaic. He is currently investigating the interaction of class, race, and geography in metropolitan areas. Dr. Clark was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2005. His other recent honors and awards include fellowship of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2003, honorary fellow- ship of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1997, and the Decade of Behavior Research Award in 2005. Dr. Clark is a member of the Trans- portation Research Board Executive Committee and its Subcommittee for National Research Council (NRC) Oversight and of the NRC Geo- graphical Sciences Committee. He earned a BA and an MA from the Uni- versity of New Zealand and a PhD from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, all in geography. Douglas M. Duncan is an independent consultant. He previously served as county executive for Montgomery County, Maryland for three terms, from 1994 to 2006. Montgomery County is Maryland’s largest jurisdic- tion, with an annual budget of $3.9 billion and 9,000 employees. During his tenure as county executive, Mr. Duncan served on the Board of Directors of the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments and was a member of the Metropolitan Washington Air Quality Committee and of the Maryland Comprehensive Transit Plan Transit Advisory Panel. He took a particular interest in transportation and was involved in many of the decisions relating to the Maryland Intercounty Connec- tor project, which includes a congestion pricing element. Mr. Duncan was a member of the city council of Rockville, Maryland, from 1982 to 1987 and was mayor of Rockville from 1987 to 1993. He has also held positions with Montgomery County’s criminal justice commission and spent 13 years in the private sector working in the telecommunications industry. Mr. Duncan has received numerous awards for his leadership and management, including the 2006 Community Builder Award from the Greater Washington, D.C., Chapter of the Organization of Chinese

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Study Committee Biographical Information 171 Americans; the 2004 Leadership Award from CASA of Maryland, the state’s largest Latino and immigrant-based service and advocacy organization; the 2001 Award for Outstanding Public Leadership in Serving the Disability Community from the Commission on People with Disabilities; and the 2001 Elizabeth and David Scull Memorial Public Service Award from the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments. Mr. Duncan earned a BA in psychology and political science from Columbia University. T. Keith Lawton is principal, Keith Lawton Consulting, Inc., based in Newberg, Oregon. He was formerly with Metro, the metropolitan plan- ning organization for the Portland, Oregon, region and held a variety of positions during his 29 years with the organization. Immediately prior to his retirement, Mr. Lawton was Director of Technical Services in the Planning Department. He led Metro’s development of a comprehensive set of models for use by all jurisdictions in the Portland area as well as an integrated transportation–land use model that links households, popu- lation, and employment with Metro’s detailed transportation model. He was also involved in the federally supported activity-based model devel- opment known as TRANSIMS at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As part of his recent consulting work, Mr. Lawton was principal investi- gator on a study of changes in travel behavior and demand associated with managed lanes, which was requested by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials’ Standing Committee on Planning. Mr. Lawton is an emeritus member of the Transportation Research Board Committee on Transportation Demand and Forecast- ing and has served on several National Research Council committees, including the Committee on Physical Activity, Health, Transportation, and Land Use and the Committee to Review the Bureau of Transporta- tion Statistics’ Survey Programs. Currently, he serves on the Strategic Highway Research Program 2 Technical Coordinating Committee for Capacity Research. Mr. Lawton holds a BS in civil engineering from the University of Natal, South Africa, and an MS in civil and environmental engineering from Duke University. David M. Levinson is Richard P. Braun–CTS Chair in Transportation Engineering and Associate Professor in the Department of Civil Engi- neering at the University of Minnesota. His research interests include

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172 Equity of Evolving Transportation Finance Mechanisms transportation economics and financing, transportation policy and deployment, integrated transportation and land use planning, travel behavior, and travel demand modeling. His recent research projects include a value pricing project and an evaluation of the MnPASS (I-394 high-occupancy toll lanes) for the Hubert Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, measurement of the equity and efficiency of the Twin Cities ramp meter system for the Minnesota Department of Transportation, and a study of the needs of transportation-disadvantaged individuals. Dr. Levinson recently spent a year as a visiting academic at the Centre for Transport Studies, Imperial College, London. He has also worked as a transportation planner with the Montgomery County Planning Depart- ment of the Maryland–National Capital Park and Planning Commis- sion. Dr. Levinson was the winner of the 2005 New Faculty Award presented by the Council of University Transportation Centers and the American Road and Transportation Builders Association. He is a mem- ber of the Transportation Research Board Committee on Transportation Demand Forecasting, and is editor of the Journal of Transportation and Land Use. Dr. Levinson received a BS from the Georgia Institute of Tech- nology, an MS from the University of Maryland at College Park, and a PhD from the University of California, Berkeley, all in civil engineering. Robert Cameron Mitchell is professor emeritus in the Graduate School of Geography at Clark University. Before joining the Clark faculty, he taught at Swarthmore College and at the Pennsylvania State University and was a senior fellow at Resources for the Future in Washington, D.C., from 1976 to 1987. In recent years, Dr. Mitchell has worked extensively with economists to design studies that measure the economic value of environmental policies involving nonmarketed goods, such as oil spill prevention and national water quality improvements. His publications in this field address measurement techniques, notably the use of surveys to value public goods (contingent valuation), and the application of these techniques to a range of environmental issues. Specific cases addressed in Dr. Mitchell’s publications include the damages from the Exxon Valdez oil spill; siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Hanford; the Three Mile Island nuclear incident; and the reduction of trihalomethanes in the public drinking water system of a small southern Illinois town. Dr. Mitchell is a member of several professional associations, including

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Study Committee Biographical Information 173 the American Sociological Association and the American Association for Public Opinion Research, and is a former member of the editorial board of Public Opinion Quarterly. He has served as a consultant to a wide range of companies and organizations, including the State of California’s Department of Natural Resources; the Nature Conservancy; the Organi- sation for Economic Co-operation and Development; the U.S. Environ- mental Protection Agency; Social Impact Assessment, Inc., La Jolla, California; and the World Bank. In 1998, he received the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists’ prize for a publication of enduring value for the book Using Surveys to Value Public Goods, authored jointly with Richard Carson. Dr. Mitchell earned a BA in history from the College of Wooster, an MDiv from Union Theological Seminary, and an MA and PhD in sociology from Northwestern University. Sandra Rosenbloom is Professor of Planning, Adjunct Professor of Natural Renewable Resources, Adjunct Professor of Gerontology, and Adjunct Professor of Women’s Studies at the University of Arizona. She served as director of the Roy P. Drachman Institute for Land and Regional Development Studies, a research and public service unit of the university, from 1990 to 2004. Before joining the University of Arizona faculty in 1990, she held an endowed chair as David Bruton Centennial Professor of Urban Design and Planning at the University of Texas, Austin. Dr. Rosenbloom’s research explores the intersection between the social sciences and transportation, and she is internationally recognized for her scholarship on the implications for transportation and commu- nity development of societal trends—notably, suburbanization, the aging of society, the increased role in the labor force of women with chil- dren, and the growth of groups with special needs. She received the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 2004 Roy W. Crum distinguished service award for her outstanding achievements in the field of trans- portation research. Her other honors include the 1999 Roger Tate Award for pioneering research on mobility options for the elderly, and the gov- ernment of New Zealand’s 1998 Kitahura Lectureship. Her extensive international work has been supported by the European Community, the European Council of Ministers of Transport, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and by the governments of Australia, France, and the Netherlands. Dr. Rosenbloom is a member of

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174 Equity of Evolving Transportation Finance Mechanisms the TRB Executive Committee and was a member of the Planning Com- mittee for the 4th International Conference on Women’s Issues in Transportation. She chaired the TRB Committee on Paratransit, has served on several other TRB committees and task forces, and was named a National Associate of the National Academies in 2004. Dr. Rosenbloom earned an AB in political science, an MA in public policy, and a PhD in political science, all from the University of California, Los Angeles. Kenneth A. Small is Research Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Economics at the University of California, Irvine. He chaired the department from 1992 to 1995 and served as Associate Dean of Social Sciences from 1986 to 1992. Dr. Small specializes in urban, transportation, and environmental economics, and his recent research has addressed urban highway congestion, measurement of value of time and reliability, effects of fuel efficiency standards, public transit financ- ing, and fuel taxes. He conducted a project on travel demand modeling for California’s 91 Express Lanes for the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion (DOT), investigated the viability of value pricing demonstrations for the U.S. DOT and the California DOT, and studied the viability of public transit with road-pricing measures for the University of Califor- nia Energy Institute. He has also recently studied travel reliability, tran- sit pricing, and the effects of fuel prices and fuel-efficiency regulation on travel behavior. Dr. Small was associate editor of Transportation Research, Part B: Methodological for 4 years and serves on the editorial boards of that journal and of Regional Science and Urban Economics, Journal of Urban Economics, Transportation, and Journal of Transport Economics and Policy. He has served on several National Research Coun- cil committees, including the Committee for a Study on Urban Trans- portation Congestion Pricing. He received the Distinguished Member Award of the American Economic Association’s Transportation and Public Utilities Group in 1999 and the Transportation Research Forum’s Distinguished Transportation Research Award in 2004. Dr. Small has advised the European Union, the World Bank, and other government organizations. He earned a BS in physics and an AB in mathematics from the University of Rochester and an MA in physics and a PhD in economics from the University of California, Berkeley.

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Study Committee Biographical Information 175 Brian D. Taylor is Professor and Chair of Urban Planning and Direc- tor, Institute of Transportation Studies, at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). His research addresses transportation policy and planning. In particular, his work explores how society pays for trans- portation systems and how these systems serve the needs of people with low levels of mobility because of low income, disability, location, or age. Much of Dr. Taylor’s research focuses on the politics of transportation finance, including the history of freeway planning and finance, emerg- ing trends in highway finance, the linking of subsidies to public transit performance, and the measurement of equity in public transit finance. His research also examines travel demographics, including patterns of public transit use by the central city poor and the constrained travel patterns of working women. Dr. Taylor recently coauthored a study that examined the high-occupancy toll lanes on State Route 91 in Orange County, California, and compared how tolls and sales taxes affect the county’s lower income residents. In 2005, he coauthored a review and synthesis of road-use metering and charging systems com- missioned by the National Research Council (NRC) Committee for the Study of the Long-Term Viability of Fuel Taxes for Transportation Finance. Before joining the UCLA Department of Urban Planning in 1994, Dr. Taylor held assistant professor and visiting lecturer positions at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and was a transporta- tion planner with the Metropolitan Transportation Commission in Oakland, California. He is a member of the American Planning Asso- ciation, holds professional certification from the American Institute of Certified Planners, and is a member of the Blue Ribbon Panel of Trans- portation Experts that advises the National Surface Transportation Pol- icy and Revenue Study Commission. He was a member of the NRC Committee for a Study of Contracting Out Transit Services and is cur- rently serving on the Committee for a Study of Potential Energy Sav- ings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Transportation. Dr. Taylor earned a BA in geography from the University of California, Los Ange- les (UCLA), an MS in civil engineering and an MCP in city and regional planning from the University of California, Berkeley, and a PhD in urban planning from UCLA.

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176 Equity of Evolving Transportation Finance Mechanisms Beverly G. Ward is a United We Ride Coordination Ambassador with the National Resource Center for Human Service Transportation Coor- dination and is based in Tampa, Florida. The National Resource Center is operated by the Community Transportation Association of America under a cooperative agreement with the Federal Transit Administration. In her position as ambassador on human service and public transport coordination for Federal Region 1 (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont), Dr. Ward works with regional, state, and local officials; transit operators; and mobility advo- cates to improve coordinated human service and public transportation. She was formerly an associate in research at the University of South Florida for more than 17 years. Her research at the university’s Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, department of anthropology, and Center for Urban Transportation Research addressed policies, sys- tems, and practices relating to housing, mobility, and access. In particu- lar, Dr. Ward analyzed the social impacts of housing and transportation policies on an aging population, persons with disabilities, women, and low-income and minority communities. Her research has been sup- ported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Science Foundation, the Florida Department of Transportation, and the Federal Highway Administration. Before taking up her position at the University of South Florida, Dr. Ward was assistant director of the Alabama Transit Association in Birmingham. She is a member of the Transportation Research Board Committee on Environmental Justice in Transportation and served from 2004 to 2005 on the National Research Council Committee on Research on Women’s Issues in Transportation: A Conference. She is also a member of the Harvard Civil Rights Project Transportation Equity Advisory Board. Dr. Ward earned a BA in psy- chology and film–drama from Vassar College, an MPA from the Univer- sity of Alabama at Birmingham, and a PhD in applied anthropology from the University of South Florida. Johanna P. Zmud is a senior policy researcher with the RAND Corpora- tion in Arlington, Virginia. She was formerly president of NuStats, LLC, a survey science consultancy specializing in transportation studies. Her areas of expertise include opinion and behavior measurement, survey methods research, communication research, travel survey design and analysis, and

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Study Committee Biographical Information 177 public transit markets. Dr. Zmud has 22 years of experience in survey design, implementation, and statistical analysis and has managed more than 30 household travel surveys and 100 other surveys, including surveys on tolling and road pricing. She was principal investigator for a recent National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) synthesis study that summarized and analyzed public opinion data on tolls and road pricing across the United States and internationally. Dr. Zmud has pub- lished papers on a variety of survey-related topics, including quality in survey research among non–English-speaking populations, instrument design, and stated preference applications. She chairs the NCHRP Project Panel on Improved Framework and Tools for Highway Pricing Decisions and the Data and Information Systems section of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) and is a member of several other TRB committees and panels. She is also a former chair of the TRB Committee on Travel Sur- vey Methods and served on the National Research Council Committee on Safety Belt Technology. Dr. Zmud earned a BS from East Carolina Univer- sity, an MS from the University of Maryland, and a PhD in communica- tion research from the University of Southern California’s Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism.