b. If any animals or data were not included in the analysis, explain why.
Outcomes and estimation 16 Report the results for each analysis carried out, with a measure of precision (e.g. standard error or confidence interval).
Adverse events 17 a. Give details of all important adverse events in each experimental group.
b. Describe any modifications to the experimental protocols made to reduce adverse events.
Interpretation/scientific implications 18 a. Interpret the results, taking into account the study objectives and hypotheses, current theory and other relevant studies in the literature.
b. Comment on the study limitations including any potential sources of bias, any limitations of the animal model, and the imprecision associated with the results†.
c. Describe any implications of your experimental methods or findings for the replacement, refinement or reduction (the 3Rs) of the use of animals in research.
Generalisability/translation 19 Comment on whether, and how, the findings of this study are likely to translate to other species or systems, including any relevance to human biology.
Funding 20 List all funding sources (including grant number) and the role of the funder(s) in the study.

The guidelines are intended to:

—   Improve reporting of research using animals.

—   Guide authors as to the essential information to include in a manuscript, and not be absolutely prescriptive.

—   Be flexible to accommodate reporting a wide range of research areas and experimental protocols.

—   Promote reproducible, transparent, accurate, comprehensive, concise, logically ordered, well written manuscripts.

—   Improve the communication of the research findings to the broader scientific community.

The guidelines are NOT intended to:

—   Promote uniformity, stifle creativity, or encourage authors to adhere rigidly to all items in the checklist. Some of the items may not apply to all studies, and some items can be presented as tables/figure legends or flow diagrams (e.g. the numbers of animals treated, assessed and analysed).

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