FIGURE 5-1 Factors that support or constrain persistence in learning.
the goals people set are related to their sense of self-efficacy, or perceived ability to perform well on a task, and the value they assign to the task. Second, although often discussed as stable attributes of an individual, a person’s self-efficacy, self-regulation, goal orientation, and so on can differ depending on the context and the activity. Third, each of these contributors
Design Principles from Research on
Motivation, Engagement, and Learning
• Develop self-efficacy and perceptions of competency.
• Help learners set appropriate and valuable learning goals.
• Set expectations about the amount of effort and practice required to develop literacy skills.
• Help learners develop feelings of control and autonomy.
• Foster interest and develop beliefs about the value of literacy tasks.
• Help learners monitor progress and regulate their behavior toward goal attainment.
• Teach students to make adaptive attributions for successes and failures.
• Provide learners’ with opportunities for success while providing optimal challenges to develop proficiencies.
• Foster social relationships and interactions known to affect learning.
• Use classroom structures and select texts and materials to help learners identify with learning and literacy tasks that counter past negative experiences with schooling.
• Assist with removing barriers to participation and practice to ensure that learners have the motivating experience of making progress.
• Give learners access to knowledgeable and skilled teachers and appropriately designed materials.