FIGURE 5-1 Factors that support or constrain persistence in learning.

the goals people set are related to their sense of self-efficacy, or perceived ability to perform well on a task, and the value they assign to the task. Second, although often discussed as stable attributes of an individual, a person’s self-efficacy, self-regulation, goal orientation, and so on can differ depending on the context and the activity. Third, each of these contributors

BOX 5-1
Design Principles from Research on
Motivation, Engagement, and Learning

•  Develop self-efficacy and perceptions of competency.

•  Help learners set appropriate and valuable learning goals.

•  Set expectations about the amount of effort and practice required to develop literacy skills.

•  Help learners develop feelings of control and autonomy.

•  Foster interest and develop beliefs about the value of literacy tasks.

•  Help learners monitor progress and regulate their behavior toward goal attainment.

•  Teach students to make adaptive attributions for successes and failures.

•  Provide learners’ with opportunities for success while providing optimal challenges to develop proficiencies.

•  Foster social relationships and interactions known to affect learning.

•  Use classroom structures and select texts and materials to help learners identify with learning and literacy tasks that counter past negative experiences with schooling.

•  Assist with removing barriers to participation and practice to ensure that learners have the motivating experience of making progress.

•  Give learners access to knowledgeable and skilled teachers and appropriately designed materials.

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