oral language) was selected. A total of 248 references were screened for the review (including for English language learners), and 141 were selected for closer examination. Studies were excluded if they targeted only numeracy or other nonliteracy outcomes, focused on adults with reading disabilities who had completed secondary education, and had at least average literacy skills or if they were reporting the same data as another source selected for the review. Altogether, 107 studies were eliminated after screening. Most of the discarded references were assessment or instructional studies with adults with reading disabilities but not low literacy and studies of instruction with adult literacy populations outside the United States. (A parallel review was conducted to identify practices used in literacy programs for low-literate adults in other countries. These results are synthesized in Chapter 3 to provide insights into practices that may warrant further study with adults in the United States.)

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