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F Reprinted Workshop Report Summary of the Workshop to Identify Gaps and Possible Directions for NASA’s Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Programs (National Research Council, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2011), which summa - rizes the National Research Council workshop held in March 9-10, 2011, in Fairfax, Virginia, is reprinted here in its entirety. Note that the reprinted report’s page numbers reflect the pagination that applies for inclusion in the current report, rather than the pages numbers of the original report. 125
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 127 Summary of the Workshop to Identify Gaps and Possible Directions for NASA’s Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Programs Committee for the Assessment of NASA’s Orbital Debris Programs Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 128 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study is based on work supported by Contract NNH10CC48B between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any views or observations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-21515-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-21515-3 Copies of this report are available free of charge from: Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 129 The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.nationalacademies.org
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 130 OTHER RECENT REPORTS OF THE AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD Final Report of the Committee to Review Proposals to the 2011 Ohio Third Frontier Wright Projects Program (OTF WPP) (Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board [ASEB], 2011) Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era (Space Studies Board [SSB] with ASEB, 2011) Advancing Aeronautical Safety: A Review of NASA’s Aviation Safety-Related Research Programs (SSB with ASEB, 2010) Capabilities for the Future: An Assessment of NASA Laboratories for Basic Research (Laboratory Assessments Board with ASEB, 2010) Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies: Final Report (SSB with ASEB, 2010) Final Report of the Committee to Review Proposals to the 2010 Ohio Third Frontier (OTF) Wright Projects Program (WPP) (ASEB, 2010) America’s Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs (SSB with ASEB, 2009) Approaches to Future Space Cooperation and Competition in a Globalizing World: Summary of a Workshop (SSB with ASEB, 2009) An Assessment of NASA’s National Aviation Operations Monitoring Service (ASEB, 2009) Fostering Visions for the Future: A Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (ASEB, 2009) Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies: Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2009) Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration (SSB with ASEB, 2009) Assessing the Research and Development Plan for the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Summary of a Workshop (ASEB, 2008) A Constrained Space Exploration Technology Program: A Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program (ASEB, 2008) Launching Science: Science Opportunities Provided by NASA’s Constellation System (SSB with ASEB, 2008) Managing Space Radiation Risk in the New Era of Space Exploration (ASEB, 2008) NASA Aeronautics Research: An Assessment (ASEB, 2008) Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program: An Interim Report (ASEB, 2008) Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA’s Constellation System: Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2008) United States Civil Space Policy: Summary of a Workshop (SSB with ASEB, 2008) Wake Turbulence: An Obstacle to Increased Air Traffic Capacity (ASEB, 2008) Limited copies of ASEB reports are available free of charge from Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board National Research Council The Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001 (202) firstname.lastname@example.org www.nationalacademies.org/aseb.html
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 131 COMMITTEE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF NASA’S ORBITAL DEBRIS PROGRAMS DONALD J. KESSLER, NASA (retired), Chair GEORGE J. GLEGHORN, TRW Space and Technology Group (retired), Vice Chair KYLE T. ALFRIEND, Texas A&M University MICHAEL BLOOMFIELD, Oceaneering Space Systems PETER BROWN, University of Western Ontario RAMON L. CHASE, Booz Allen Hamilton SIGRID CLOSE, Stanford University JOANNE IRENE GABRYNOWICZ, National Center for Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law, University of Mississippi ROGER E. KASPERSON, Clark University T.S. KELSO, Center for Space Standards and Innovation MOLLY K. MACAULEY, Resources for the Future DARREN S. McKNIGHT, Integrity Applications, Inc. WILLIAM P. SCHONBERG, Missouri University of Science and Technology Staff PAUL JACKSON, Program Officer, Study Director LEWIS B. GROSWALD, Research Associate JOHN F. WENDT, Senior Program Officer CATHERINE A. GRUBER, Editor ANDREA M. REBHOLZ, Program Associate DALAL NAJIB, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 132 AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD RAYMOND S. COLLADAY, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired), Chair LESTER LYLES, The Lyles Group, Vice Chair ELLA M. ATKINS, University of Michigan AMY L. BUHRIG, Boeing Commercial Airplanes Group INDERJIT CHOPRA, University of Maryland, College Park JOHN-PAUL B. CLARKE, Georgia Institute of Technology RAVI B. DEO, EMBR VIJAY DHIR, University of California, Los Angeles EARL H. DOWELL, Duke University MICA R. ENDSLEY, SA Technologies DAVID GOLDSTON, Harvard University R. JOHN HANSMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN B. HAYHURST, Boeing Company (retired) WILLIAM L. JOHNSON, California Institute of Technology RICHARD KOHRS, Independent Consultant IVETT LEYVA, Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base ELAINE S. ORAN, Naval Research Laboratory ALAN G. POINDEXTER, Naval Postgraduate School HELEN R. REED, Texas A&M University ELI RESHOTKO, Case Western Reserve University EDMOND SOLIDAY, United Airlines (retired) MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate CHRISTINA O. SHIPMAN, Financial Officer SANDRA WILSON, Financial Assistant
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 133 Preface The National Research Council (NRC), under the auspices of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, was asked by NASA Chief of Safety and Mission Assurance Bryan O’Connor to assess NASA’s meteoroid 1 and orbital debris (MMOD) programs and provide recommendations on potential opportunities for enhancing their benefit to the nation’s space program. This request came at the urging of the White House Office of Management and Budget and Office of Science and Technology Policy (see Appendix A). The NRC assembled the Committee for the Assessment of NASA’s Orbital Debris Programs to review NASA’s existing efforts, policies, and organization with regard to meteoroids and orbital debris, including its efforts in the areas of modeling and simulation, detection and monitoring, protection, mitigation, reentry, collision assessment risk analysis and launch collision avoidance, interagency cooperation, international cooperation, and cooperation with the commercial space industry. The committee was also asked to provide its opinion as to whether NASA should initiate work in any new MMOD areas and to recommend whether the agency should increase or decrease effort in or change the focus of any of its current meteoroid or orbital debris efforts to improve their ability to serve NASA and other national and international activities. The committee was instructed to assume that the programs will be operating in a constrained budget environment (see Appendix B for the committee’s statement of task). Through a series of information-gathering meetings, including the workshop that is the subject of this report, the committee received briefings from representatives of NASA and other federal agencies and foreign space agencies, as well as from other experts in the fields of meteoroids, orbital debris, and aerospace technology. Although the statement of task refers to a singular NASA program in this field, there are in fact numerous program elements spread across NASA mission centers that address MMOD. For the purposes of this report, these elements are referred to as NASA’s MMOD programs.2 The vast majority of NASA’s efforts fall within five program elements (the “programs”), which are: • Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, NASA Headquarters: Provides top-level budget and programmatic management, technical oversight, and coordination within NASA and with other U.S. government entities; advocate to senior NASA management on MMOD; 1 This report uses the word “meteoroid” according to its precise definition, rather than the term “micrometeoroid,” a colloquialism for “small” meteoroids and an imprecise term that does not cover the full range of sizes or meteoroids. However, to avoid adding a new acronym to the literature and to minimize confusion, the committee retains use of the acronym “MMOD” (micrometeoroid and orbital debris) as a modifier (e.g., MMOD programs). 2 This term also reflects how the programs were referred to by many panelists and committee members at the workshop.
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 134 • Orbital Debris Program Office, NASA Johnson Space Center: Performs many duties that are NASA- specific, interagency, and international in nature; within NASA, in charge of aiding all robotic and human space - flight missions in determining compliance with NASA policy standards regarding orbital debris mitigation and responsible for technical evaluations of all orbital debris assessment reports and end-of-mission plans; • Meteoroid Environment Office, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center: Responsible for the creation and stewardship of meteoroid environment models, tools, and documents relevant to spacecraft operations and design; • Hypervelocity Impact Technology Group, NASA Johnson Space Flight Center: Works to decrease MMOD risk to crew, improve MMOD protection of NASA spacecraft, and decrease the amount of MMOD shielding in terms of cost, volume, and mass; and • Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: Supports robotic missions by conducting risk assessments of possible collisions between spacecraft in orbit of the close approaches predicted by the U.S. Air Force Joint Space Command. In addition to these established programs, the National Space Policy of the United States of America,3 released in 2010 (henceforth referred to as the 2010 National Space Policy), also calls for NASA to take on research and development into technologies related to orbital debris retrieval and removal. In addition to research and develop - ment, the policy also makes maintaining a sustainable space environment a long-term goal of the United States. Because of the diversity and number of perspectives and entities involved in space activities within the United States, the committee held a public workshop on March 9-10, 2011, in Fairfax, Virginia, as an efficient way to hear from the various stakeholders. The workshop complements other data-gathering meetings held by the committee throughout the course of its study. The committee’s statement of task calls for a summary of the workshop, which is the purpose of this report. The presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop are summarized in this report, although the committee does not offer any findings or recommendations. The committee will detail its findings and offer rec - ommendations in its next, and final, report. The committee maintains responsibility for the overall quality and accuracy of the report as a record of what transpired at the workshop, but views and opinions contained in this workshop report were expressed by the presenters, attendees, or individual committee members as attributed and do not necessarily represent the views of the whole committee. The committee heard from five panels of presenters at the workshop, each of which was composed of three to five members who spoke for a short period of time. Their names and affiliations are listed in Appendix C. Following the presentations, questions and comments were then solicited, first from the committee members and then from the audience, which consisted of government employees, academics, and representatives of the aerospace industry. 3 National Space Policy of the United States of America, June 28, 2010, available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/ national_space_policy_6-28-10.pdf.
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 135 Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: William Ailor, The Aerospace Corporation, Ravi B. Deo, EMBR, John L. Junkins, Texas A&M University, Chris T.W. Kunstadter, XL Insurance, and Michael F. Zedd, Naval Research Laboratory. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse any of the viewpoints or observations detailed in this report. The review of this report was overseen by M. Granger Morgan, Carnegie Mellon University. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 156 B Statement of Task The National Research Council, under the auspices of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, will establish an ad hoc committee to assess NASA’s orbital debris programs and provide recommendations on potential opportunities for enhancing their benefit to the nation’s space program. The committee will: 1. Review NASA’s existing efforts, policies, and organization with regard to orbital debris and micrometeor- oids, including efforts in the following areas: • Modeling and simulation; • Detection and monitoring; • Protection; • Mitigation; • Reentry; • Collision assessment risk analysis and launch collision avoidance; • Interagency cooperation; • International cooperation; • Cooperation with the commercial space industry. 2. Assess whether NASA should initiate work in any new orbital debris or micrometeoroid areas. 3. Recommend whether NASA should increase or decrease effort in, or change the focus of, any of its current orbital debris or micrometeoroid efforts to improve the programs’ abilities to serve NASA and other national and international activities. The committee should assume that the programs will be operating in a constrained budget environment. The study will result in two reports. The first will be a workshop report and the second will be the committee’s final report at the conclusion of the study. This project is sponsored by NASA.
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 157 C Workshop Agenda MARCH 9, 2011 Don Kessler, Chair 10:30 a.m. Workshop Introduction Session 1: NASA Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Programs 10:35 a.m. The leads for NASA’s Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) programs will speak about pro- gram goals, issues, gaps, and opportunities. Panelists: John Lyver, Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, NASA Headquarters, Man- ager of NASA’s Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Program Offices Gene Stansbery, NASA Orbital Debris Program Office, Johnson Space Center William Cooke, Meteoroid Environment Office, Marshall Space Flight Center Eric Christiansen, Hypervelocity Impact Technology Group, Johnson Space Center/ Human Exploration Science Office Lauri Newman, NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis, Goddard Space Flight Center 12:00 p.m. Lunch Session 2: NASA Mission Operators 12:45 p.m. Project managers and system engineers from various NASA robotic missions will discuss MMOD issues from an operations standpoint. What MMOD-related problems do missions encounter throughout the lifetime of a spacecraft? How do NASA’s MMOD programs meet mission planners’ and operators’ needs? What information are mission managers using to make decisions related to the operations of a spacecraft, and how do mission managers make MMOD-related decisions? Panelists: Michael Rhee, Systems Engineer, Global Precipitation Measurement Mission, Goddard Space Flight Center
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 158 Mark Woodard, Senior Flight Dynamics Engineer, ARTEMIS Mission, Goddard Space Flight Center Patrick Crouse, Operations Project Manager, Hubble Space Telescope, Goddard Space Flight Center Glenn Shirtliffe, Project Manager, Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2 Missions, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Richard Burns, Program Manager, Space Science Mission Operations, Goddard Space Flight Center Session 3: Role of NASA’s MMOD Programs and Their Relationship to Other Federal 2:15 p.m. Agencies Representatives of U.S. government agencies involved in space policy, space and Earth science, and MMOD issues will discuss challenges they face from the space environment, interagency issues and opportunities for collaboration, and how and to what extent they engage NASA’s MMOD programs. Panelists: Andrew Palowitch, Director, Space Protection Program, Air Force Space Command/National Reconnaissance Office Phil Brinkman, Program Lead for Licenses, Office of Commercial Space Trans- portation, Federal Aviation Administration Mark Mulholland, Senior Advisor, Office of Systems Development, National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Kenneth Hodgkins, Director, Space and Advanced Technology, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, U.S. Depart- ment of State Karl Kensinger, Associate Division Chief, Satellite Division, International Bureau, Federal Communications Commission 4:15 p.m. Day 1 Adjourns 6:00 p.m. Committee Working Dinner MARCH 10, 2011 Session 4: MMOD and the Commercial Industry Perspective 9:00 a.m. Members of the aerospace and space insurance industries will talk about how MMOD affects business operations, from the manufacturing of spacecraft to making on-orbit decisions about a possible collision. What tools does industry use to make decisions affecting their space assets, what is industry’s relationship with NASA’s MMOD programs, and what opportunities for col- laboration are there between industry and NASA? Panelists: John Campbell, Lt. Gen. (ret.), USAF, Executive Vice President of Government Programs, Iridium Satellite Communications Larry Price, Orion Deputy Program Manager, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Chris Kunstadter, Senior Vice President, XL Insurance Session 5: Panel on Orbital Debris Retrieval and Removal 10:45 a.m. The 2010 National Space Policy calls for U.S. government research and development efforts to be made to retrieve and remove orbital debris, but how will that policy be turned into action?
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 159 Representatives of NASA’s technology development programs, the Department of Defense, and the Executive Office of the President will talk about these efforts and what it will take to help engineer a safer space environment. Panelists: Wilson Harkins, Deputy Chief, Safety Mission Assurance, NASA Steven Meier, Director, Crosscutting Capability Demonstration Division, NASA Office of the Chief Technologist Damon Wells, Senior Advisor, Office of Science and Technology Policy 12:30 p.m. Lunch and Committee Working Lunch in Closed Session 1:30 p.m. Discussion of Observations and Conclusions from Workshop 2:00 p.m. Workshop Adjourns
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 160 D Committee and Staff Biographical Information COMMITTEE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF NASA’S ORBITAL DEBRIS PROGRAMS DONALD J. KESSLER, Chair, retired from NASA as a senior scientist for orbital debris research. He has more than 30 years of experience in scientific research associated with orbital debris, meteoroids, and interplanetary dust, especially in relation to developing mathematical models, deriving collision probabilities, using sampling techniques, and defining the space environment. Mr. Kessler was a consultant to NASA through Lockheed on orbital debris models and to Prairie View A&M University on orbital debris course development. He worked at NASA’s Johnson Space Center as a senior scientist for orbital debris research in the Solar System Exploration Division, where he coordinated NASA’s orbital debris research program. He also participated in national and international reviews of other agencies’ orbital debris programs and participated in establishing the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee, an international agency to address orbital debris issues. He also developed orbital debris models; recommended and developed experiments to test models; analyzed orbital debris data; conducted classes, workshops, and symposia on orbital debris; and recommended cost-effective techniques to control orbital debris. Mr. Kessler modeled interplanetary meteoroid environments, flight control of Skylab experiments, and atmospheric environments, and he developed early orbital debris models and began establishing the need for an orbital debris program. Mr. Kessler participated in U.S. Air Force (USAF) and Strategic Defense Command tests and measure - ments programs, as well as in studies on orbital debris by various organizations, such as the USAF Scientific Advisory Board, AIAA, the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), and the Government Accountability Office. Mr. Kessler has published approximately 100 technical articles or extended abstracts on meteoroids and orbital debris and is a contributing author or editor of 10 major reports. He was the managing editor for Space Debris, an international journal. He received the IAASS Jerome Lederer Space Safety Pioneer Award, the AIAA Losey Atmospheric Sciences Award in 2000, and the NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement. Mr. Kessler received his B.S. in physics from the University of Houston. GEORGE J. GLEGHORN, Vice Chair, is an independent consultant who retired as vice president and chief engi- neer of TRW Space and Technology Group, now a part of Northrop Grumman. During his 37 years at TRW, he contributed to a wide range of distinguished spacecraft: Pioneer I, the first NASA spacecraft; Pioneer 5, which reported the first data received from interplanetary space; Intelsat III, the first satellite to broadcast live television worldwide; the Orbiting Geophysical Observatory; and NASA’s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite. He contributed to Pioneer 6, Pioneer 10, and Pioneer 11 and to the development of the Atlas, Thor, and Titan ballistic missiles.
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 161 Prior to TRW, Dr. Gleghorn worked at Hughes Aircraft and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and he served as a naval officer in the Korean War. He is a member of the NAE, a fellow of AIAA, and a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). He has also been a member of independent design and readiness review groups on the Hubble Space Telescope refurbishment mission, the Cassini/Huygens orbiter, the probe of Titan, and the Chandra X-Ray telescope spacecraft. Dr. Gleghorn holds a B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Colorado and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering and mathematics from the California Institute of Technology. He was a member of the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel for 10 years and the NRC National Weather Service Modernization Committee, the Committee on Membership, the Aerospace Engi - neering Peer Committee, the Committee on International Space Station Meteoroid/Debris Risk Management, and the Committee on Space Debris. KYLE T. ALFRIEND is the TEES Distinguished Research Chair and Professor in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at Texas A&M University. His areas of research include astrodynamics, satellite altitude dynam - ics and control, space debris, space surveillance, and space systems engineering. Dr. Alfriend has received the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) International Scientific Cooperation Award, the AIAA Mechanics and Control of Flight Award, and the American Astronautical Society Dirk Brouwer Award. He is a member of the NAE and a fellow of AIAA. Dr. Alfriend earned his M.S. in applied mechanics from Stanford University and his Ph.D. in engineering mechanics from Virginia Tech. He has served as a member of the NRC’s Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board and of the Committee on the Future of the U.S. Aerospace Infrastruc - ture and Aerospace Engineering Disciplines to Meet the Needs of the Air Force and the Department of Defense. MICHAEL J. BLOOMFIELD is vice president and general manager of space systems at Oceaneering Space Systems. Prior to joining Oceaneering, he was vice president for Houston operations at Alliant Techsystems Inc. (ATK). Mr. Bloomfield is a veteran astronaut of three space shuttle flights. Selected as a NASA astronaut in 1994, he served as pilot on STS-86 and STS-97 and as commander of STS-110. While at NASA he also held important management positions with the astronaut office, including chief instructor astronaut, chief of astronaut safety, and deputy director of flight crew operations. Additionally, Mr. Bloomfield was director of shuttle operations and chief of the shuttle branch. He also served as deputy director of the Flight Crew Operations Directorate before leaving NASA in 2007 to join ATK. Mr. Bloomfield received his B.S. in mechanical engineering from the U.S. Air Force Academy and his M.S. in engineering management from Old Dominion University. PETER BROWN is a professor at the University of Western Ontario (UWO) and a member of the Western Meteor Physics Group. He studies small bodies of the solar system, with a particular emphasis on meteors, meteorites, meteoroids, and asteroids. His research interests include answering basic questions about the origin and evolu - tion of small bodies in the solar system, such as the origin of meteoroids (comets/asteroids/interstellar and the proportions of each), the origin of meteorites, the physical structure of meteoroids (bulk density/dustballs and what this says about their origin), and the flux and interaction of larger meteoroids at Earth (meteorites, breakup in the atmosphere). Dr. Brown has received the UWO Governor General’s Gold Medal and the Plaskett Medal of the Canadian Astronomical Society and the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, is the Canada Research Chair in Meteor Science, and won an Ontario Distinguished Researcher Award. He earned his B.Sc. in honors physics from the University of Alberta and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. in physics from the UWO. RAMON L. CHASE is an associate at Booz Allen Hamilton. He has worked on three new concept efforts: the Fly back Booster System, the Point-to-Point Delivery System, and the Transatmospheric Vehicle. He is also the DARPA representative to the Joint NASA DARPA Horizontal Launch Initiative study advisory group. Previously, he was a principal and division manager at ANSER, where he participated in the development of a National Hypersonic Roadmap and an Air Force Integrated Space Architecture. He has served as a study leader at General Research Corporation and as a propulsion lead to the Jupiter Orbiter Planetary Spacecraft Preliminary Design Team at Cali - fornia Institute of Technology’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Mr. Chase has written more than 30 technical papers on advanced space transportation systems, military space planes, single stage-to-orbit launch vehicles, orbital
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 162 transfer vehicles, technology readiness assessment, and advanced propulsion systems. He is an AIAA associate fellow and has served on the AIAA Hypersonics Program Committee and the AIAA Space Transportation Technical Committee. He also chaired the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Hypersonic Committee and SAE Space Transportation Committee. Mr. Chase received an M.A. in public administration from the University of California. SIGRID CLOSE is an assistant professor in the department of aeronautics and astronautics at Stanford University. Prior to joining Stanford, Dr. Close was a project leader at Los Alamos National Laboratory and a technical staff member at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s (MIT’s) Lincoln Laboratory, where she led programs to characterize meteoroids and meteoroid plasma using high-power radars. She was also the lead space physicist for spacecraft monitoring and unplanned space surveillance events and was a project leader for characterizing and modeling ionospheric plasma instabilities. Dr. Close’s current research area is in space weather and satellite sys - tems, which includes characterizing and mitigating environmental risks to spacecraft; detecting and characterizing interstellar dust; signal processing and monitoring using radio-frequency satellite systems; and plasma modeling for remote sensing. Her honors and awards include the Joe D. Marshall Award, given by the Air Force Technical Applications Center for Outstanding Technical Briefing, MIT Lincoln Scholar, and first place in the student paper competition at the International Union of Radio Science. She was the vice chair of Commission G of the Interna - tional Union of Radio Science. Dr. Close received her Ph.D. in astronomy (space physics) from Boston University. JOANNE IRENE GABRYNOWICZ is director of the National Center for Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law at the University of Mississippi; and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Space Law. Dr. Gabrynowicz teaches space law and remote sensing law and was a founding faculty member of the University of North Dakota Space Studies Department. She has served as the dean of the NASA Space Academy at Goddard Space Flight Center, as the managing attorney of a law firm, and as an official observer for the International Astronautical Federation to the United Nations’ Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. She was a member of the International Insti - tute of Space Law delegation to the Unidroit Committee of Governmental Experts for the Preparation of a Draft Protocol to the Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment on Matters Specific to Space Assets. Dr. Gabrynowicz is the organizer and chair of the Federal Advisory Committee for the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive, and she served as a member of the OTA’s Earth Observations Advisory Panel and the Department of Commerce Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing. She advised the Eisenhower Institute on its study “The Future of Space—the Next Strategic Frontier.” She is a member of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing International Policy Advisory Committee, the American Bar Association, the Forum on Aviation and Space Law, the New York State Bar, the International Institute of Space Law, and Women in Aerospace, among other groups. Dr. Gabrynowicz received her B.A. from Hunter College and her J.D. from the Yeshiva University Cardozo School of Law. ROGER E. KASPERSON is a research professor and distinguished scientist at Clark University. He also taught at the University of Connecticut and Michigan State University. He has written widely on issues connected with risk analysis, risk communication, global environmental change, risk and ethics, and environmental policy. Dr. Kasperson has been a consultant or advisor to numerous public and private agencies on energy and environmental issues and served on various committees of the NRC and the Council of the Society for Risk Analysis. He chaired the International Geographical Union Commission on Critical Situations/Regions in Environmental Change. He was vice president for Academic Affairs at Clark University and was elected director of the Stockholm Environment Institute. He served as co-chair of the scientific advisory committee of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Change and is on the Scientific Steering Committee of the START Programme of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme. Dr. Kasperson is a member of the NAS and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has been honored by the Association of American Geographers for his research on hazards and is a recipient of the Distin - guished Achievement Award of the Society for Risk Analysis. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. T.S. KELSO is currently a senior research astrodynamicist for the Center for Space Standards and Innovation (CSSI) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. He has nearly 30 years of experience in space education, research, analysis,
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 163 acquisition, development, operations, and consulting with organizations such as the Air Force Space Command Space Analysis Center; NASA’s Near-Earth Object Science Definition Team; the Air Force Chief of Staff’s SPACE - CAST 2020 and Air Force 2025 future studies; and the Air Force Satellite Control Network. Dr. Kelso has taught on the faculty at the Air War College; the Air Command and Staff College; the Airpower Research Institute; the College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education; and the Air Force Institute of Technology. He has supported the space surveillance community by operating electronic data dissemination systems to provide the North American Aerospace Defense Command two-line orbital element sets, associated orbital models, documentation, software, and educational materials to users around the world. Dr. Kelso received a B.S. in both physics and mathematics from the U.S. Air Force Academy, an M.B.A. in quantitative methods from the University of Missouri, Columbia, an M.S. in space operations from the Air Force Institute of Technology, and a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering (operations research) from the University of Texas, Austin. MOLLY K. MACAULEY is a senior fellow and research director at Resources for the Future, where her research has included studies on economics and policy issues of outer space, the valuation of non-priced space resources, the design of incentive arrangements to improve the use of space resources, and the appropriate relationship between public and private endeavors in space research, development, and the commercial enterprise. Dr. Macauley has also served as a visiting professor in the Department of Economics at Johns Hopkins University. She was elected to the International Academy of Astronautics and was selected as a “Rising Star” by the National Space Society. She is on the board of trustees of the National Center for Atmospheric Research and on the board of directors of the American Astronautical Society and the Thomas Jefferson Public Policy Program of the College of William and Mary. She has testified frequently before Congress and serves on many national-level committees and panels. Dr. Macauley earned her B.A. in economics from the College of William and Mary and her M.S. and Ph.D. in economics from Johns Hopkins University. She is a member of the NRC’s Space Studies Board and has previously served on the NRC’s Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, the Panel on Earth Science Applications and Societal Needs, the Science Panel of the Review of NASA Strategic Roadmaps, and the Committee on a Survey of the Scientific Use of the Radio Spectrum. DARREN S. McKNIGHT is the technical director at Integrity Applications, Inc. (IAI). He is focused on space systems/environment analysis, sustainable energy modeling, innovation practices, visualization solutions, and data analytics. Before coming to IAI, Dr. McKnight served as senior vice president and director of science and technol - ogy strategy at Science Applications International Corporation and as chief scientist at Agilex Technologies. His responsibilities included technical collaboration corporate-wide, strategic technology investments (including inde - pendent research and development), and validating innovation methodologies. Dr. McKnight has served recently on the Defense Science Board Summer Study on 21st Century Strategic Technology Vectors, National Science Foundation’s (NSF’s) Industry Expert Panel on Industrial R&D, Harvard Business Review Advisory Council, National Knowledge and Intellectual Property Management Task Force, and IBM’s Global Innovation Outlook Team. He has coauthored two technical books, Artificial Space Debris and Chemical Principles Applied to Space- craft Operations. Dr. McKnight received his bachelor’s degree from the U.S. Air Force Academy in engineering sciences, his master’s degree from the University of New Mexico in mechanical engineering, and his doctorate from the University of Colorado in aerospace engineering sciences. WILLIAM P. SCHONBERG is a professor and chair of the civil, architectural, and environmental engineering department at Missouri University of Science and Technology. He has 25 years of teaching and research experience in shock physics, spacecraft protection, hypervelocity impact, and penetration mechanics. The results of his research have been applied to a wide variety of engineering problems, including the development of orbital debris protection systems for spacecraft in low Earth orbit, kinetic energy weapons, the collapse of buildings under explosive loads, insensitive munitions, and aging aircraft. Dr. Schonberg has published more than 65 papers in referred journals and has presented nearly 65 papers at a broad spectrum of international scientific and professional meetings. He is a recipient of the AIAA Lawrence Sperry Award and of the Charles Sharpe Beecher Prize from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, is a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American Society
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 164 of Civil Engineers, and is an AIAA associate fellow. He received his B.S.C.E. from Princeton University and his M.S. and Ph.D. from Northwestern University. Dr. Schonberg served on the NRC’s Committee on Space Shuttle Meteoroid/Debris Risk Management. STAFF PAUL JACKSON, Study Director, is a program officer for the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB). He joined the NRC in 2006 and was previously a media relations contact for the Office of News and Public Information. He is the study director for a number of ASEB’s projects, including proposal reviews for the state of Ohio and the Committee for the Assessment of NASA’s Orbital Debris Programs. Mr. Jackson earned a B.A. in philosophy from Michigan State University in 2002 and an M.P.A in policy analysis, economic development, and comparative international affairs from Indiana University in 2006. JOHN F. WENDT joined the NRC as a part-time, off-site senior program officer for ASEB in 2002. His main activities have involved proposal evaluations for the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the state of Ohio. He retired in 1999 as director of the von Karman Institute (VKI) for Fluid Dynamics. The VKI is a NATO-affiliated international postgraduate and research establishment located in a suburb of Brussels, Belgium. As director, Dr. Wendt’s main responsibility was to ensure the continued excellence of the institute’s teaching and research pro - grams by providing effective leadership and administrative and financial management. Dr. Wendt’s career at the VKI began as a postdoctoral researcher in 1964. He served as head of the Aeronautics/Aerospace Department and dean of the faculty prior to becoming director in 1990. His research interests were rarefied gas dynamics, transonics, high angle of attack aerodynamics and hypersonic reentry including major inputs to the European Hermes space shuttle program in the 1980s. Dr. Wendt has served as a consultant to the U.S. Air Force, NATO, and the European Space Agency. He is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Aerospace. Dr. Wendt received a B.S. degree in chemical engineering from the University of Wisconsin, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering and astronautical sciences from Northwestern University. LEWIS B. GROSWALD, research associate, joined the Space Studies Board as the Autumn 2008 Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern. Mr. Groswald is a graduate of George Washington University, where he received a master’s degree in international science and technology policy and a bachelor’s degree in international affairs, with a double concentration in conflict and security and Europe and Eurasia. Following his work with the National Space Society during his senior year as an undergraduate, Mr. Groswald decided to pursue a career in space policy, with a focus on educating the public on space issues and formulating policy. CATHERINE A. GRUBER, editor, joined the SSB as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and also worked as an outreach assistant for the National Science Resources Center. She was a research assistant (chemist) in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland. ANDREA M. REBHOLZ joined the ASEB as a program associate in January 2009. She began her career at the National Academies in October 2005 as a senior program assistant for the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation. Before joining the Academies, she worked in the communications department of a D.C.-based think tank. Ms. Rebholz graduated from George Mason University’s New Century College in 2003 with a B.A. in integrative studies–event management and has more than 9 years of experience in event planning. DALAL NAJIB is the Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow with the ASEB. Dr. Najib recently completed her Ph.D. in space physics at the University of Michigan (AOSS department) on modeling the interaction of non-magnetized planets (Mars, Venus) with the solar wind, working with Dr. Andrew F. Nagy.
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 165 During her doctoral work, she developed a new three-dimensional multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model and applied it to Mars and Venus. In parallel, she also completed a master’s of public policy from the Gerald Ford School of Public Policy at the University of Michigan with a focus on science and technology policy. Dr. Najib received her undergraduate degree in aerospace and aeronautical engineering from Supaero (Toulouse, France). She is interested in space policy, general science and innovation policy, and efforts to promote cooperation between international science communities. MICHAEL H. MOLONEY is the director of the SSB and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board at the NRC. Since joining the NRC in 2001, Dr. Moloney has served as a study director at the National Materials Advi - sory Board, the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA), the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, and the Center for Economic, Governance, and International Studies. Before joining the SSB and ASEB in April 2010, he was associate director of the BPA and study director for the Astro2010 decadal survey for astronomy and astrophysics. In addition to his professional experience at the NRC, Dr. Moloney has more than 7 years of experience as a foreign-service officer for the Irish government and served in that capacity at the Embassy of Ireland in Washington, D.C., the Mission of Ireland to the United Nations in New York, and the Department of Foreign Affairs in Dublin, Ireland. A physicist, Dr. Moloney did his graduate Ph.D. work at Trinity College Dublin in Ireland. He received his undergraduate degree in experimental physics at University College Dublin, where he was awarded the Nevin Medal for Physics.
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REPRINTED WORKSHOP REPORT 166 E Acronyms ARTEMIS Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun ASEB Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board CARA conjunction assessment risk analysis DAS Debris Assessment Software DLR German Aerospace Center DOD Department of Defense FAA Federal Aviation Administration FCC Federal Communications Commission GEO geosynchronous/geostationary Earth orbit GPM Global Precipitation Measurement (mission) HST Hubble Space Telescope HVIT Hypervelocity Impact Technology IADC Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee JSpOC Joint Space Operations Center LEO low Earth orbit MEM Meteoroid Environment Model MMOD meteoroid and orbital debris NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NRC National Research Council OCT Office of the Chief Technologist ODPO Orbital Debris Program Office ORDEM Orbital Debris Environment Model ORSAT Object Reentry Survival Analysis Tool OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy PSFT Propulsion Systems Foundation Technology R&D research and development TRL technology readiness level UN United Nations