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with their departments because I do not know if they are going to be sustainable otherwise. This is a very critical issue.

What do we know about what works? There are several different models that are working in the new commons environment. We need to study them. If nothing else, we can use the time-worn measures of equity, efficiency, and sustainability in guiding what we are building.

In conclusion, we need to do more outreach to build greater awareness of the commons and of open access. We need to document the steps that we are taking and the lessons we are learning in the course of building the microbial commons, because not much is known about this process. We need to translate our knowledge to a wider, nonscientific community.

I would like to encourage you to join the International Association for the Study of the Commons, form a panel, and present your work at the upcoming 2011 conference in Hyderabad, India.

Question and Answer Session

PARTICIPANT: There were many rich points in your presentation, but I was particularly interested in your plea at the very end for the integration of libraries in the knowledge production process. This is a point we are trying to make in developing the open knowledge environments—that there is a fantastic role for libraries there. Do I understand you in supporting that?

DR. HESS: Absolutely.

PARTICIPANT: That was one of our objectives, and that is why we are thinking that there is a large role for the universities. It has so many opportunities for integrating knowledge that cannot be done anywhere else, so it would seem to be a way of transforming the way universities organize the production of knowledge.

DR. HESS: I fully agree. It is not just going to happen on the academic side, but also on the side of the libraries. Some of these are really not in tune with what you are doing and not really focusing on gray literature or on databases that are not in their library. There are so many aspects where that coordination needs to happen on both ends. So absolutely, you are on target as far as that goes.



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