Gerhard Hummer received a doctoral degree in physics for work done jointly at the Max-Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen and the University of Vienna (1992). In 1996, he started his independent career in the Theoretical Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory after his postdoctoral work there. In 1999, Dr. Hummer joined the Laboratory of Chemical Physics in the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases at the National Institutes of Health where he is a Senior Investigator. His research focuses on areas including theory of single-molecule experiments; channel function; peptide and protein folding; complex formation and ligand binding; proton pumping and bioenergetics; reaction-rate calculations; and the development of new methods for biomolecular simulation and electrostatics.

Douglas J. Tobias is a Professor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of California, Irvine. His research involves the use of atomic-scale computer simulation techniques to study the structure and dynamics of biological molecules and biomimetic materials and aqueous interfaces with air. A substantial portion of his work is devoted to the development, implementation, and optimization of novel simulation methodology and analysis tools. Current projects include interactions of peptides and proteins with lipids, molecular mechanisms of ion channel gating, and the dynamics of native and denatured proteins and their hydration water, among others. Dr. Tobias is an elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He received his bachelors and masters degrees in chemistry from the University of California, Riverside and his Ph.D. in Chemistry and Biophysics from Carnegie Mellon University.

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