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APPENDIX E THE BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES, THE BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY, AND THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES KEITH R. YAMAMOTO (Chair), University of California, San Francisco, California BONNIE L. BASSLER, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey VICKI L. CHANDLER, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Palo Alto, California SEAN EDDY, HHMI Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, Virginia MARK D. FITZSIMMONS, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Chicago, Illinois DAVID R. FRANZ, Midwest Research Institute, Frederick, Maryland LOUIS J. GROSS, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee CATO T. LAURENCIN, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut BERNARD LO, University of California, San Francisco, California ROBERT M. NEREM, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia CAMILLE PARMESAN, University of Texas, Austin, Texas MURIEL E. POSTON, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York ALISON G. POWER, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York BRUCE W. STILLMAN, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York CYNTHIA WOLBERGER, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland MARY WOOLLEY, Research!America, Alexandria, Virginia NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director JO L. HUSBANDS, Scholar/Senior Project Director JAY B. LABOV, Senior Scientist/Program Director for Biology Education KATHERINE BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer MARILEE K. SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Senior Program Officer INDIA HOOK-BARNARD, Program Officer KEEGAN SAWYER, Associate Program Officer ANNA FARRAR, Financial Associate CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Program Associate SAYYEDA AYESHA AHMED, Senior Program Assistant ORIN LUKE, Senior Program Assistant 19

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BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY CO-CHAIRS RYAN R. DIRKX, Arkema Inc., King of Prussia, Pennsylvania C. DALE POULTER, University of Utah, Salt Lake City MEMBERS ZHENAN BAO, Stanford University, California ROBERT BERGMAN, University of California, Berkeley HENRY BRYNDZA, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware EMILY CARTER, Princeton University, New Jersey PABLO DEBENEDETTI, Princeton University, New Jersey MARY JANE HAGENSON, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company, LLC, The Woodlands, Texas CAROL J. HENRY, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. JILL HRUBY, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts JOSEF MICHL, University of Colorado, Boulder MARK A. RATNER, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois ROBERT E. ROBERTS, Institute for Defense Analyses, Washington, D.C. DARLENE J. S. SOLOMON, Agilent Laboratories, Santa Clara, California ERIK J. SORENSEN, Princeton University, New Jersey JEAN TOM, Bristol-Myers Squibb, West Windsor, New Jersey WILLIAM C. TROGLER, University of California, San Diego DAVID WALT, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Program Officer KATHRYN HUGHES, Program Officer TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Senior Program Officer SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Research Associate RACHEL YANCEY, Program Assistant 20

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. 21