the longer-term impact of stress. He also pointed out that the physiological changes and psychological disruption that occurs due to violence cannot be addressed by behavior change interventions later in life without significant cost; at best, they will only have limited success. Gary Milante of the World Bank noted that this biological developmental mechanism was similar to a social developmental one, in which strong institutions in countries served as protective factors, much like a relationship or a social support system. Mindy Fullilove made a similar comparison, saying that a city affected by violence deteriorates, leading to future violence and a collective decision-making paralysis. Juma Assiago noted that this highlights the importance of framing public safety as a common good.



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