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Social and Economic Costs of Violence WORKSHOP SUMMARY Deepali M. Patel and Rachel M. Taylor, Rapporteurs Forum on Global Violence Prevention Board on Global Health
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Health and Human Services: Administration on Aging, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, Office on Women’s Health; Anheuser-Busch InBev; Avon Foundation for Women; BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company); Catholic Health Initiatives; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Eli Lilly and Company; Department of Education: Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice; Fetzer Institute; F. Felix Foundation; Foundation to Promote Open Society; The Joyce Foundation; Kaiser Permanente; National Institutes of Health: National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Office of Research on Women’s Health, John E. Fogarty International Center; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-22024-8 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-22024-6 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap. edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine) and NRC (National Research Coun- cil). 2012. Social and economic costs of violence: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engi- neers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR WORKSHOP ON SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC COSTS OF VIOLENCE: THE VALUE OF PREVENTION1 MARK L. ROSENBERG (Chair), President and CEO, The Task Force for Global Health MINDY THOMPSON FULLILOVE, Research Psychiatrist and Professor of Clinical Psychiatry and Public Health, New York State Psychiatric Institute at Columbia University PEGGY MURRAY, Senior Advisor for International Research, Office of the Director, National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism PAMELA B. TEASTER, Director of the Graduate Center for Gerontology, Chairperson of the Department of Gerontology, and Associate Dean for Research, College of Public Health, University of Kentucky ELIZABETH WARD, Chairman, Violence Prevention Alliance, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus 1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the work- shop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. v
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FORUM ON GLOBAL VIOLENCE PREVENTION JACQUELYN C. CAMPBELL (Co-chair), Anna D. Wolf Chair and Professor, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing MARK L. ROSENBERG (Co-chair), President and CEO, The Task Force for Global Health CLARE ANDERSON, Deputy Commissioner, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, Department of Health and Human Services FRANCES E. ASHE-GOINS, Deputy Director, Office on Women’s Health, Department of Health and Human Services KATRINA BAUM, Senior Research Officer, Office of Research Partnerships, National Institute of Justice, Department of Justice SUSAN BISSELL, Associate Director, Child Protection Section, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) ARTURO CERVANTES TREJO, Director General, National Center for Injury Prevention, Ministry of Health, Mexico XINQI DONG, Associate Director, Rush Institute for Health Aging; Associate Professor of Medicine, Behavioral Sciences, and Gerontological Nursing, Rush University Medical Center AMIE GIANINO, Senior Global Director, Beer & Better World, Anheuser-Busch InBev KATHY GREENLEE, Assistant Secretary for Aging, Administration on Aging, Department of Health and Human Services RODRIGO V. GUERRERO, City Counselor, Cali, Colombia JOHN R. HAYES, Global Strategy Leader for Neuroscience, Medical Affairs, Eli Lilly and Company DAVID HEMENWAY, Director, Injury Control Research Center and the Youth Violence Prevention Center, Harvard School of Public Health FRANCES HENRY, Advisor, F. Felix Foundation MERCEDES S. HINTON, Program Officer, Initiative on Confronting Violent Crime, Open Society Institute LARKE NAHME HUANG, Senior Advisor, Office of the Administrator, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services L. ROWELL HUESMANN, Amos N. Tversky Collegiate Professor of Psychology and Communication Studies Director, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan KEVIN JENNINGS, Assistant Deputy Secretary of Education, Office of Safe and Drug Free Schools, Department of Education CAROL M. KURZIG, President, Avon Foundation for Women vi
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JOANNE LACROIX, Manager, Family Violence Prevention Unit, Public Health Agency of Canada JACQUELINE LLOYD, Health Scientist Administrator, Prevention Research Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Services and Prevention Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse BRIGID McCAW, Medical Director, NCal Family Violence Prevention Program, Kaiser Permanente JAMES A. MERCY, Special Advisor for Strategic Directions, Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PEGGY MURRAY, Senior Advisor for International Research, Office of the Director, National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism MICHAEL PHILLIPS, Director, Suicide Research and Prevention Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine COLLEEN SCANLON, Senior Vice President, Advocacy, Catholic Health Initiatives KRISTIN SCHUBERT, Interim Team Director, Public Health and Program Officer, Vulnerable Populations, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation EVELYN TOMASZEWSKI, Senior Policy Advisor, Human Rights and International Affairs, National Association of Social Workers ELIZABETH WARD, Chairman, Violence Prevention Alliance, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus Staff DEEPALI M. PATEL, Program Officer RACHEL M. TAYLOR, Research Associate RACHEL E. PITTLUCK, Senior Program Assistant (until May 2011) MEGAN M. PEREZ, Senior Program Assistant (from June 2011) ELENA NIGHTINGALE, Scholar-in-Residence KATE BURNS, Intern JULIE WILTSHIRE, Financial Officer PATRICK KELLEY, Board Director vii
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Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: THERESA BETANCOURT, Assistant Professor of Child Health and Human Rights, Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health; Director, Research Program on Children and Global Adversity, Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights JÜRGEN REHM, Director, Social and Epidemiological Research Department, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health GARY SLUTKIN, Executive Director, CeaseFire; Professor, Epidemiology and International Health, University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health ELIZABETH WARD, Chairman, Violence Prevention Alliance, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus ix
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x REVIEWERS Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by ANNE C. PETERSEN, Research Professor at the Center for Human Growth and Development at the University of Michigan. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Re- sponsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author and the institution.
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Contents 1 Introduction 1 PART I: Workshop Overview 2 Approaches to Measurement and Costing Methodology 7 3 Challenges in Calculating Costs 14 4 Toward a Bigger Picture of the Costs of Violence 17 5 The Promise of Investing in Violence Prevention 26 PART II: Papers and Commentary from Workshop Speakers 6 Papers on Direct and Indirect Costs of Violence 33 The Costs of Interpersonal Violence—An International Review 34 Hugh Richard Waters, Adnan Ali Hyder, Yogesh Rajkoti, Suprotik Basu, and Alexander Butchart Consequences of Elder Abuse: The Needs for Social Justice and Policy Implications 51 XinQi Dong Costs of Firearm Violence: How You Measure Things Matters 60 David Hemenway xi
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xii CONTENTS The Contagion of Violence: The Extent, the Processes, and the Outcomes 63 L. Rowell Huesmann How Persistent Fear and Anxiety Can Affect Young Children’s Learning, Behavior, and Health 69 Nathan A. Fox and Jack P. Shonkoff 7 Papers on Context and Place 84 Social Contexts and Violence 84 Mindy Thompson Fullilove and Rodrick Wallace The Impact of War on Child Development and Mental Health: A Longitudinal Study of Risk and Resilience Among Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone 88 Theresa S. Betancourt Intimate Partner Violence in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: High Costs to Households and Communities 97 Aslihan Kes Youth Violence in Kingston, Jamaica 102 Elizabeth Ward, Damian Hutchinson, Horace Levy, and Deanna Ashley 8 Papers on Investing in Prevention 113 The Value of Prevention 113 Rachel A. Davis Communities That Care: Bridging Science and Community Practice to Prevent Adolescent Health and Behavior Problems Including Violence 121 J. David Hawkins, Richard F. Catalano, and Margaret R. Kuklinski
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xiii CONTENTS APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 141 B Speaker Biographical Sketches 147 C Planning Committee Biographical Sketches 161 D Forum Member Biographical Sketches 164
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