CHIMPANZEES IN
BIOMEDICAL
AND BEHAVIORAL
RESEARCH

ASSESSING THE NECESSITY

Committee on the Use of Chimpanzees in Biomedical
and Behavioral Research

Board on Health Sciences Policy
Institute of Medicine

Board on Life Sciences
Division on Earth and Life Studies

Bruce M. Altevogt, Diana E. Pankevich,
Marilee K. Shelton-Davenport, and Jeffrey P. Kahn, Editors

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE AND
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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CHIMPANZEES IN BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH ASSESSING THE NECESSITY Committee on the Use of Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research Board on Health Sciences Policy Institute of Medicine Board on Life Sciences Division on Earth and Life Studies Bruce M. Altevogt, Diana E. Pankevich, Marilee K. Shelton-Davenport, and Jeffrey P. Kahn, Editors

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, N.W. • Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee re- sponsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with re- gard for appropriate balance. This study was requested by Contract No. N01-OD-4-239 Task Order No. 248 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. Any opinions, findings, conclu- sions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the au- thor(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-22039-2 International Standard Book Number-11: 0-309-22039-4 Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624- 6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2011. Chimpanzees in biomed- ical and behavioral research: Assessing the necessity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal gov- ernment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of out- standing engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engi- neering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON THE USE OF CHIMPANZEES IN BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH JEFFREY P. KAHN (Chair), Johns Hopkins University Berman Institute of Bioethics JOHN G. BARTLETT, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine H. RUSSELL BERNARD, University of Florida FLOYD E. BLOOM, The Scripps Research Institute WARNER C. GREENE, University of California, San Francisco DIANE E. GRIFFIN, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health EDWARD E. HARLOW, Harvard University School of Medicine JAY R. KAPLAN, Wake Forest School of Medicine MARGARET S. LANDI, GlaxoSmithKline FREDERICK A. MURPHY, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston ROBERT SAPOLSKY, Stanford University SHARON TERRY, Genetic Alliance Study Staff BRUCE M. ALTEVOGT, Study Director MARILEE K. SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Senior Program Officer DIANA E. PANKEVICH, Associate Program Officer LORA K. TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant ALEX R. REPACE, Senior Project Assistant ANDREW M. POPE, Director, Board on Health Sciences Policy FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director, Board on Life Sciences v

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Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its pub- lished report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets in- stitutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confi- dential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Stephen W. Barthold, University of California, Davis Thomas M. Butler, Independent consultant Alexander M. Capron, University of Southern California Timothy Coetzee, National Multiple Sclerosis Society Frans B. M. de Waal, Emory University Jane Goodall, Jane Goodall Institute Beatrice H. Hahn, University of Pennsylvania Donald A. Henderson, Johns Hopkins University William D. Hopkins, Agnes Scott College Steven E. Hyman, Harvard University Stanley M. Lemon, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Alexander Ploss, The Rockefeller University Arthur Weiss, University of California, San Francisco Although the reviewers listed above have provided many construc- tive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the con- vii

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viii REVIEWERS clusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the re- port before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Eli Y. Adashi, Immediate Past Dean of Medicine & Biological Sciences, Brown University, and Peter H. Raven, President Emeritus, Missouri Botanical Garden. Appointed by the National Research Council and In- stitute of Medicine, they were responsible for making certain that an in- dependent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entire- ly with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Contents SUMMARY 1 STUDY BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 9 Origin of Study and Committee Statement of Task, 12 Ethical Considerations, 14 METHODS AND ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT 15 INTERNATIONAL POLICIES GUIDING CHIMPANZEE USE 16 SUMMARY OF CHIMPANZEE RESEARCH 20 Analysis of Federally Supported Research, 20 Analysis of Private-Sector Supported Research, 23 Criteria That Guide the Current Use of Chimpanzees, 25 PRINCIPLES GUIDING THE USE OF CHIMPANZEES IN RESEARCH 26 Ethologically Appropriate Physical and Social Environments, 27 Criteria to Assess the Necessity of the Chimpanzee for Biomedical Research, 28 Criteria for Use of the Chimpanzee in Comparative Genomics and Behavioral Research, 33 ix

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x CONTENTS REVIEWING THE NECESSITY OF CURRENT CHIMPANZEE RESEARCH 35 Monoclonal Antibodies, 36 Development of Chimpanzee Monoclonal Antibodies, 37 Safety Testing of Monoclonal Antibody Therapies, 38 Respiratory Syncytial Virus, 42 HCV Antiviral Drugs, 47 Therapeutic HCV Vaccine, 50 Prophylactic HCV Vaccine, 52 Comparative Genomics, 55 Altruism, 59 Cognition, 62 FUTURE USE OF CHIMPANZEES IN BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH 64 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 66 APPENDIXES A References 71 B Commissioned Paper: Comparison of Immunity to Pathogens in Humans, Chimpanzees, and Macaques 91 C Information-Gathering Agendas 167 D Committee Biographies 181