D

Committee Biographies

Jeffrey Kahn, Ph.D., M.P.H. (Chair), is the Robert Henry Levi and Ryda Hecht Levi Professor of Bioethics and Public Policy at the Johns Hopkins University Berman Institute of Bioethics. Prior to joining the faculty at Johns Hopkins in 2011, Dr. Kahn was director of the Center for Bioethics and the Maas Family Endowed Chair in Bioethics at the University of Minnesota, positions he held from 1996 to 2011. Earlier in his career, Dr. Kahn was director of the Graduate Program in Bioethics and assistant professor of bioethics at the Medical College of Wisconsin, and associate director of the White House Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Kahn works in a variety of areas of bioethics, exploring the intersection of ethics and public health policy, including research ethics, ethics and genetics, and ethical issues in public health. He has served on numerous state and federal advisory panels, and speaks nationally and internationally on a range of bioethics topics. He has published more than 100 articles in the bioethics and medical literature, and is a coeditor of the widely used text Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, about to enter its eighth edition. From 1998 to 2002, he wrote the biweekly column “Ethics Matters” for CNN.com. Dr. Kahn earned his B.A. in Microbiology from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), his M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University, and his Ph.D. in Philosophy/Bioethics from Georgetown University.

John G. Bartlett, M.D., is an internationally renowned authority on AIDS and other infectious diseases. In 1970, he joined the faculty at UCLA. He later moved to the faculty of Tufts University School of Medicine, where he served as associate chief of staff for research at the Boston VA Hospital. In 1980 he moved to Baltimore as professor of



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D Committee Biographies Jeffrey Kahn, Ph.D., M.P.H. (Chair), is the Robert Henry Levi and Ryda Hecht Levi Professor of Bioethics and Public Policy at the Johns Hopkins University Berman Institute of Bioethics. Prior to joining the faculty at Johns Hopkins in 2011, Dr. Kahn was director of the Center for Bioethics and the Maas Family Endowed Chair in Bioethics at the University of Minnesota, positions he held from 1996 to 2011. Earlier in his career, Dr. Kahn was director of the Graduate Program in Bioethics and assistant professor of bioethics at the Medical College of Wisconsin, and associate director of the White House Advisory Committee on Hu- man Radiation Experiments. Dr. Kahn works in a variety of areas of bio- ethics, exploring the intersection of ethics and public health policy, including research ethics, ethics and genetics, and ethical issues in public health. He has served on numerous state and federal advisory panels, and speaks nationally and internationally on a range of bioethics topics. He has published more than 100 articles in the bioethics and medical litera- ture, and is a coeditor of the widely used text Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, about to enter its eighth edition. From 1998 to 2002, he wrote the biweekly column “Ethics Matters” for CNN.com. Dr. Kahn earned his B.A. in Microbiology from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), his M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University, and his Ph.D. in Philosophy/Bioethics from Georgetown University. John G. Bartlett, M.D., is an internationally renowned authority on AIDS and other infectious diseases. In 1970, he joined the faculty at UCLA. He later moved to the faculty of Tufts University School of Med- icine, where he served as associate chief of staff for research at the Bos- ton VA Hospital. In 1980 he moved to Baltimore as professor of 181

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182 ASSESSING THE NECESSITY OF THE CHIMPANZEE medicine and chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Johns Hop- kins University School of Medicine. For 27 years, he has been a leader for the School of Medicine’s worldwide efforts to understand, prevent, and treat AIDS. He received the prestigious 2005 Maxwell Finland Award for scientific achievement from the National Foundation for In- fectious Diseases. Dr. Bartlett was the first to direct clinical trials in Bal- timore of new treatments that prevent HIV from replicating, and he pioneered the development of dedicated inpatient and outpatient medical care for HIV-infected patients. In 1984, when AIDS was still in its infan- cy, he helped start a small clinic within the Moore Clinic to serve a small group of gay men with AIDS, which along with providing research data about how the disease spread, grew to become the centerpiece of the Johns Hopkins AIDS Service. It is now the largest program for HIV care in Maryland. Dr. Bartlett cochaired the national committee that drafted the first and all subsequent treatment guidelines for HIV-infected pa- tients. He counsels numerous medical societies and health ministries around the world on infectious diseases in general and on AIDS specifi- cally. Bartlett’s research interests have dealt with anaerobic infections, pathogenic mechanisms of Bacteroides fragilis, anaerobic pulmonary infections, and Clostridium difficile-associated colitis. Since joining Hopkins in 1980, his major interests have been HIV/AIDS, managed care of patients with HIV infection, pneumonia (community acquired), and, most recently, bioterrorism. Clinically his interests include HIV primary care, general infectious diseases, HIV and hemophilia, and HIV managed care. He received his undergraduate degree from Dartmouth University and earned his M.D. at Upstate Medical Center in Syracuse, New York. He then completed residency training in Internal Medicine at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston and the University of Ala- bama at Birmingham. Dr. Bartlett also completed Fellowship training in Infectious Diseases at UCLA and at the Wadsworth Veterans Admin- istration Hospital. H. Russell Bernard, Ph.D., is the founder and current editor of the jour- nal Field Methods, and has served as editor for the American Anthropol- ogist and Human Organization. He has also served as the chair of the Board of Directors for the Human Relations Area Files. A member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), Dr. Bernard has been a recipient of the Franz Boas Award from the American Anthropological Associa- tion as well as the University of Florida Graduate Advisor/Mentoring Award. His teaching interests focus on research design and the systemat-

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APPENDIX D 183 ic methods available for collecting and analyzing field data. He has taught both within the United States and in Greece, Japan, Germany, and England. Dr. Bernard received his B.A. in Anthropology/Sociology from Queens College, New York, his M.A. in Anthropological Linguistics from the University of Illinois, and his Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Illinois. Floyd E. Bloom, M.D., is a past chair of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), former editor in chief of the jour- nal Science, and former chair of the Department of Neuropharmacology at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA. A member of the Na- tional Academy of Sciences (NAS), he is the recipient of numerous priz- es for his contributions to science, including the Janssen Award in the Basic Sciences, the Pasarow Award in Neuropsychiatry, and the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Rhoda and Bernard Sarnat International Prize in Mental Health. He has also been named a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and a member of the IOM. Dr. Bloom’s more than 600 publications include the seminal work, The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology and The Dana Guide to Brain Health. In an im- portant call-to-arms for healing the U.S. health care system, published June 13, 2003, in Science and based on his Presidential Lecture at the 2003 AAAS Annual Meeting, he describes how events of the 20th centu- ry have produced a system that cannot incorporate or implement new knowledge for the diagnosis or treatment of disease. Dr. Bloom earned his B.A. from Southern Methodist University and his M.D. from the Washington University School of Medicine. Warner C. Greene, M.D., Ph.D., is director and Nick and Sue Hell- mann Distinguished Professor of Translational Medicine of the Glad- stone Institute of Virology and Immunology (GIVI), a research center that is affiliated with the University of California, San Francisco, and dedicated to fundamental studies of modern virology and immunology with a focus on HIV and AIDS. Dr. Greene graduated from Stanford University with a B.A. and Washington University School of Medicine with an M.D. and a Ph.D. He completed internship and residency train- ing in medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital. After serving as a senior investigator at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and professor of medicine at Duke University, Dr. Greene moved to San Francisco in 1990 to become the founding director of the Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunolo-

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184 ASSESSING THE NECESSITY OF THE CHIMPANZEE gy. He is also a professor of medicine, microbiology, and immunology at UCSF. The ongoing research in Dr. Greene’s laboratory focuses on the molecular basis for HIV pathogenesis, transmission, and latency and the biochemical mechanisms underlying the regulation and action of the NF- kB/Rel family of eukaryotic transcription factors. The lab also studies HIV Env-mediated fusion and its role in the transmission of HIV virions across the female genital mucosa. Dr. Greene’s laboratory is also explor- ing how CD4 T cells die during HIV infection and devising new ap- proaches to interdict this death pathway. Dr. Greene is the author of more than 330 scientific papers. He is a member of the IOM and a Fellow of the AAAS. He is also currently president-elect of the Association of American Physicians. In 2007 he became president of the Accordia Global Health Foundation, whose mission to build a healthy Africa where every individual can thrive. Accordia is specifically focused on overcoming the burden of infectious disease on the continent by creating innovative program models that strengthen health capacity, building cen- ters of excellence, and strengthening medical institutions. With Paul Volberding, Dr. Greene also directs the UCSF–GIVI Center for AIDS Research and is a member of the executive committee of the AIDS Re- search Institute at UCSF. Diane E. Griffin, M.D., Ph.D., has been the principal investigator on a variety of grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Dana Foundation. She is the author or coauthor of many scholarly papers and articles and is past president of the American Society for Virology, Association of Medical School Mi- crobiology Chairs, and American Society for Microbiology. She is a member of the NAS, American Academy of Microbiology, and the IOM. Dr. Griffin began her career at Johns Hopkins as a postdoctoral fellow in Virology and Infectious Disease. After completing her postdoctoral work, she was named an assistant professor of Medicine and Neurology. Since then, she has held the positions of associate professor, professor, and now professor and chair. She has also served as an investigator at Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Dr. Griffin’s research interests in- clude alphaviruses, acute encephalitis, and measles. Alphaviruses are transmitted by mosquitoes and cause encephalitis in mammals and birds. She has identified determinants of virus virulence and mechanisms of noncytolytic clearance of virus from infected neurons. She is also work- ing on the effect of measles virus infection and immune activation in re- sponse to infection on the immune system. In Zambia, she and her

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APPENDIX D 185 colleagues are examining the effect of HIV infection on measles and measles virus vaccination. They have discovered that measles suppresses HIV replication and are identifying the mechanism of this suppression. Vaccine studies are defining the basis for atypical measles, and a new vaccine to induce immunity in infants under the age of 6 months is under development using a rhesus macaque model. Dr. Griffin earned a Biolo- gy degree from Augustana College, followed by an M.D. and a Ph.D. from Stanford University. She completed her residency in Internal Medi- cine at Stanford University Hospital. Edward Harlow, Ph.D., a distinguished molecular biologist, is an inter- nationally recognized leader in cancer biology who is best known for his discoveries regarding the control of cell division and critical changes that allow cancer to develop. He is a professor of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology at Harvard Medical School and a Special As- sistant to the Director at the National Cancer Institute. Previously he served as Chief Scientific Officer of Constellation Pharmaceuticals, a Cambridge MA biotechnology company that specializes in making anti- cancer drugs that target the unusual transcriptional regulatory states found in tumor cells. He served as Scientific Director for the Massachu- setts General Hospital Cancer Center and was Associate Director for Sci- ence Policy at the National Cancer Institute, where he helped direct U.S. cancer research planning. Dr. Harlow has received numerous scientific honors, including election to the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine, appointment as Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and receipt of the American Cancer Society’s high- est award, the Medal of Honor. Dr. Harlow has served on a number of influential advisory groups, including the Board of Life Sciences for the National Research Council, External Advisory Boards for UCSF, Stan- ford, UCLA, and NYU Cancer Center, and Scientific Advisory Boards for the Foundation for Advanced Cancer Studies and numerous biotech- nology and pharmaceutical companies, including Onyx, Alnylam, 3V Biosciences, and Pfizer Pharmaceuticals. He received his B.S. and M.S. from the University of Oklahoma and his Ph.D. at the Imperial Cancer Research Fund in London. Jay R. Kaplan, Ph.D., is professor of Pathology (Comparative Medi- cine), Translational Science, and Anthropology at Wake Forest School of Medicine. He is also serves as head of the Section on Comparative Med- icine (Department of Pathology) and director of the Wake Forest Primate

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186 ASSESSING THE NECESSITY OF THE CHIMPANZEE Center. He moved to the Wake Forest University School of Medicine in 1979 to study the effects of behavioral stress on susceptibility and re- sistance to coronary artery atherosclerosis in a monkey model of human heart disease. His current research with monkeys focuses on the behav- ioral and genetic factors that influence the quality of premenopausal ovarian function, and in turn, on the effect of ovarian function on risk for coronary heart disease and osteoporosis. This research has demonstrated that much of the postmenopausal trajectory for atherosclerosis and bone loss is established premenopausally, suggesting that primary prevention of postmenopausal disease should begin in the decades prior to meno- pause. His achievements include more than 150 peer-reviewed publica- tions, the Irvine H. Page Arteriosclerosis Award for Young Investigators from the American Heart Association, the Presidency of the Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research, and the awarding of numerous grants from the NIH. He currently serves as principal investigator of the grant that supports a large pedigreed and genotyped colony of vervet monkeys. He also reviews for numerous journals and for the NIH. He has served as a member of the National Academies Institute for Laboratory Animal Research and as a member of the Animal Resources Review Committee of the National Center for Research Resources. Most recently, Dr. Kaplan became a member of the Society for Women’s Health Research Interdisciplinary Studies in Sex Differences Fund for Cardiovascular Disease Network. He received his B.A. in economics from Swarthmore College. He then earned an M.A. and a Ph.D. in biological anthropology from Northwestern University, where his research involved behavioral observations of free-living rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago Island, Puerto Rico. Margaret S. Landi, V.M.D., is vice president of Global Laboratory An- imal Science (LAS) for Glaxo SmithKline Pharmaceuticals and Chief of Animal Welfare and Veterinary Medicine for GSK Research and Devel- opment. In this capacity, she is responsible for promoting animal welfare and providing a high standard of technical and professional assistance to the company’s research and development community. Dr. Landi is a Diplomate in the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM) and is a past president of the organization. Besides serving on the ACLAM Board of Directors, she has served on the Council of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR), a part of the National Academy of Science. While on the Council, she was editor-in-chief of the ILAR Journal. She serves currently on the Board of Trustees for the

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APPENDIX D 187 Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, the National Association for Bio- medical Research, and Americans for Medical Progress. Dr. Landi has received Distinguished Alumni Awards from both the University of Pennsylvania and William Paterson University. She has been awarded the Charles River Prize and the Pennsylvania Veterinary Medical Asso- ciation’s Veterinarian of the Year Award. In 2010, she was the recipient of the Harry Rowsell Award from the Scientists Center for Animal Wel- fare. Dr. Landi has published and presented papers on a number of topics related to laboratory animal medicine, welfare, and science. Her recent area of work is in the application of global principles for laboratory ani- mals in an international arena where laws, cultures, regulations, and poli- cies differ. Frederick A. Murphy, D.V.M., Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Pathology at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), Gal- veston. He is dean emeritus and distinguished professor emeritus of the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California, Davis (UCD). He is also distinguished professor emeritus at the School of Med- icine, UCD. Earlier, he served as the director, National Center for Infec- tious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and before that as director of the Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases at CDC. At UTMB, Dr. Murphy is a member of the Institute for Human Infections and Immunity (and its executive board), the Center for Biode- fense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, the Galveston National Labora- tory, the Center for Tropical Diseases, and the McLaughlin Endowment for Infection and Immunity (and member of its executive board). Dr. Murphy’s professional interests include the virology, pathology, and epi- demiology of highly pathogenic viruses/viral diseases: (1) Rabies: long- running studies leading to the identification of more than 25 viruses as members of the virus family Rhabdoviridae, identification and character- ization of the first rabies-like viruses, and major studies of rabies patho- genesis in experimental animals, including the initial descriptions of infection events in salivary glands and in muscle; (2) Arboviruses: long- running studies of togaviruses and bunyaviruses with the initial proposal for the establishment and naming of the virus family Bunyaviridae, and characterization of “reo-like” viruses culminating in the establishment and naming of the virus genus Orbivirus; (3) Viral hemorrhagic fevers: long-running studies leading to the initial discovery of Marburg and Ebo- la viruses, and characterization of several other hemorrhagic fever virus- es, culminating in the establishment and naming of the virus families

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188 ASSESSING THE NECESSITY OF THE CHIMPANZEE Arenaviridae (e.g., Lassa virus) and Filoviridae (Marburg and Ebola vi- ruses), and elucidation of the pathology and pathogenesis of the diseases in humans, monkeys, hamsters, and guinea pigs caused by these excep- tionally virulent agents; and (4) Viral encephalitides: long-running stud- ies of the pathogenesis of neurotropic viruses in experimental animals, including alphaviruses, flaviviruses, bunyaviruses, enteroviruses, paramyxoviruses, herpesviruses, and others. He has been a leader in ad- vancing the concept of “new and emerging infectious diseases” and “new and emerging zoonoses.” Most recently his interests have included the threat posed by bioterrorism. Dr. Murphy has a B.S. in bacteriology and a D.V.M. from Cornell University, and a Ph.D. in comparative pathology from UCD. Robert Sapolsky, Ph.D., is a professor of biology, neurology and neuro- logical sciences, and neurosurgery at Stanford University. He has fo- cused his research on issues of stress and neuronal degeneration, as well as on the possibilities of gene therapy strategies for protecting suscepti- ble neurons from disease. Currently, he is working on gene transfer tech- niques to strengthen neurons against the disabling effects of glucocorticoids. Dr. Sapolsky also spends time annually in Kenya study- ing a population of wild baboons in order to identify the sources of stress in their environment, and the relationship between personality and pat- terns of stress-related disease in these animals. More specifically, he studies the cortisol levels between the alpha male and female and their subordinates to determine stress level. Dr. Sapolsky has received numer- ous honors and awards for his work, including the prestigious MacArthur Fellowship genius grant in 1987, an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship, and the Klingenstein Fellowship in Neuroscience. He was also awarded the Na- tional Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator Award and the Young Investigator of the Year Awards from the Society for Neuro- science, International Society for Psychoneuro-Endocrinology, and Bio- logical Psychiatry Society. In 2007, he received the John P. McGovern Award for Behavioral Science, awarded by the AAAS. In 2008, he re- ceived the Wonderfest’s Carl Sagan Prize for Science Popularization. Sapolsky received his B.A. in biological anthropology summa cum laude from Harvard University and his Ph.D. in neuroendocrinology from Rockefeller University. Sharon F. Terry, M.A., is president and chief executive officer of the Genetic Alliance, a network transforming health by promoting openness

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APPENDIX D 189 as process and product, centered on the health of individuals, families, and communities. She is the founding executive director of PXE Interna- tional, a research advocacy organization for the genetic condition pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). Following the diagnosis of their two children with PXE in 1994, Ms. Terry, a former college chaplain, and her husband founded and built a dynamic organization that enables ethical research and policies and provides support and information to members and the public. Along with the other coinventors of the gene associated with PXE (ABCC6), she holds the patent for the invention, and with the assignment of all rights to PXE International, is its steward. She codirects a 33-lab research consortium and manages 52 offices world- wide for PXE International. Ms. Terry is also a cofounder of the Genetic Alliance Biobank. It is a centralized biological and data repository cata- lyzing translational genomic research on genetic diseases. The BioBank works in partnership with academic and industrial collaborators to devel- op novel diagnostics and therapeutics to better understand and treat these diseases. She is at the forefront of consumer participation in genetics re- search, services, and policy and serves as a member of many of the major governmental advisory committees on medical research, including the Health Information Technology Standards Committee for the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, liaison to the Health and Human Services Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Her- itable Disorders and Genetic Diseases in Newborns and Children, and the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research, National Hu- man Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), NIH. She serves on the boards of GRAND Therapeutics Foundation, Center for Information & Study on Clinical Research Participation, The Biotechnology Institute, National Coalition of Health Professional Education in Genetics, and Coalition for 21st Century Medicine. She is on the steering committees of the Genetic Association Information Network of the NHGRI, the CETT program, and the EGAPP Stakeholders Group; the editorial boards of Genetic Testing and Biomarkers and Biopreservation and Biobanking, and the Google Health and Rosalind Franklin Society Advisory Boards. She is chair of the Coalition for Genetic Fairness, which was instrumen- tal in the passage of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. She is a member of the IOM Roundtable on Translating Genomic-Based Re- search for Health. In 2005, she received an honorary doctorate from Iona College for her work in community engagement and haplotype mapping; in 2007 received the first Patient Service Award from the UNC Institute for Pharmacogenomics and Individualized Therapy; and in 2009 received

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190 ASSESSING THE NECESSITY OF THE CHIMPANZEE the Research!America Distinguished Organization Advocacy Award. She has recently been named as an Ashoka Fellow and won the Clinical Research Forum’s 2011 Public Advocacy Award.