However, the committee developed both sets of criteria guided by the following three principles:
1. The knowledge gained must be necessary to advance the public’s health;
2. There must be no other research model by which the knowledge could be obtained, and the research cannot be ethically performed on human subjects; and
3. The animals used in the proposed research must be maintained either in ethologically appropriate physical and social environments or in natural habitats.
These principles are the basis for the specific criteria that the committee established to assess current and future use of the chimpanzee in biomedical and behavioral research (see Recommendations 1 and 2).
Conclusions and Recommendations
The committee based the following conclusions and recommendations in large part on the advances that have been made by the scientific community using alternative models to the chimpanzee, such as studies using other non-human primates, genetically modified mice, in vitro systems, and in silico technologies as well as human clinical trials. Having reviewed and analyzed contemporary and anticipated biomedical and behavioral research, the committee concludes that:
• No uniform set of criteria is currently used to assess the necessity of the chimpanzee in NIH-funded biomedical and behavioral research.
• While the chimpanzee has been a valuable animal model in past research, most current use of chimpanzees for biomedical research is unnecessary, based on the criteria established by the committee, except potentially for two current research uses:
ο Development of future monoclonal antibody therapies will not require the chimpanzee, due to currently available technologies. However, there may be a limited number of monoclonal antibodies already in the developmental pipeline that may require the continued use of chimpanzees.