Recommendation 1: The National Institutes of Health should limit the use of chimpanzees in biomedical research to those studies that meet the following three criteria:

1.  There is no other suitable model available, such as in vitro, nonhuman in vivo, or other models, for the research in question;

2.  The research in question cannot be performed ethically on human subjects; and

3.  Forgoing the use of chimpanzees for the research in question will significantly slow or prevent important advancements to prevent, control, and/or treat life-threatening or debilitating conditions.

Animals used in the proposed research must be maintained either in ethologically appropriate physical and social environments or in natural habitats. Biomedical research using stored samples is exempt from these criteria.

Recommendation 2: The National Institutes of Health should limit the use of chimpanzees in comparative genomics and behavioral research to those studies that meet the following two criteria:

1.  Studies provide otherwise unattainable insight into comparative genomics, normal and abnormal behavior, mental health, emotion, or cognition; and

2.  All experiments are performed on acquiescent animals, using techniques that are minimally invasive, and in a manner that minimizes pain and distress.

Animals used in the proposed research must be maintained either in ethologically appropriate physical and social environments or in natural habitats. Comparative genomics and behavioral research using stored samples are exempt from these criteria.

The criteria set forth in the report are intended to guide not only current research policy, but also decisions regarding potential use of the chimpanzee model for future research. The committee acknowledges that imposing an outright and immediate prohibition of funding could cause unacceptable losses to research programs as well as have an impact on the animals. Therefore, although the committee was not asked to consider how its recommended policies should be implemented, it believes that the assessment of the necessity of the chimpanzee in all grant renewals



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