John F. Ahearne is the executive director emeritus of the Ethics Program at Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, a lecturer in public policy at Duke University, and an adjunct scholar at Resources for the Future. He has extensive expertise in nuclear and radiation engineering and risk assessment. His professional interests are in reactor safety, energy issues, resource allocation, and public policy management. Dr. Ahearne served in the U.S. Air Force from 1959 to 1970, resigning as a major. He has also served as deputy and principal deputy assistant secretary of defense (1972-1977), in the White House Energy Office (1977), as deputy assistant secretary of energy (1977-1978), and as commissioner and chairman of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (chairman, 1979-1981). He is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the Society for Risk Analysis, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a member of the National Academy of Engineering, Sigma Xi, and the American Nuclear Society. He has previously chaired or served as a member on committees for over 30 other NRC studies. Dr. Ahearne received a Ph.D. in physics from Princeton University.
Robert Bari is a senior physicist at Brookhaven National Laboratory. He is currently international co-chairman of the working group on proliferation resistance and physical protection of the Generation IV International Forum. He has served on the board of directors of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) and is an elected fellow of the Society. Dr. Bari
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Appendix F Workshop Speakers Biographical Sketches John F. Ahearne is the executive director emeritus of the Ethics Program at Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, a lecturer in public policy at Duke University, and an adjunct scholar at Resources for the Future. He has extensive expertise in nuclear and radiation engineering and risk assessment. His professional interests are in reactor safety, energy issues, resource allocation, and public policy management. Dr. Ahearne served in the U.S. Air Force from 1959 to 1970, resigning as a major. He has also served as deputy and principal deputy assistant secretary of defense (1972-1977), in the White House Energy Office (1977), as deputy assistant secretary of energy (1977-1978), and as commissioner and chairman of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (chairman, 1979-1981). He is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the Society for Risk Analysis, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a member of the National Academy of Engineering, Sigma Xi, and the American Nuclear Society. He has pre - viously chaired or served as a member on committees for over 30 other NRC studies. Dr. Ahearne received a Ph.D. in physics from Princeton University. Robert Bari is a senior physicist at Brookhaven National Laboratory. He is currently international co-chairman of the working group on prolif - eration resistance and physical protection of the Generation IV Interna - tional Forum. He has served on the board of directors of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) and is an elected fellow of the Society. Dr. Bari 95
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96 PROLIFERATION RISK IN NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES was awarded the ANS Theo J. “Tommy” Thompson Award in 2003 and, in 2004, he received the Brookhaven National Laboratory Award for Out- standing Achievement in Science and Technology. Dr. Bari received his bachelor’s degree in physics from Rutgers University and his doctorate in physics from Brandeis University. William Charlton serves as the director of the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University and as an associate professor in the nuclear engineering department. NSSPI is a multi-disci - plinary organization that coordinates research and education programs in the area of nuclear nonproliferation, nuclear security, and nuclear material safeguards. NSSPI customers include NNSA (National Nuclear Safety Administration), DOE (Department of Energy), DNDO (Domestic Nuclear Detection Office), NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) and the National Science Foundation (NSF). Prior to his appointment at Texas A&M, he was an assistant professor at the University of Texas at Austin and prior to that served on the technical staff in the Nonproliferation and International Security Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He teaches courses which study the technical aspects of nuclear nonpro - liferation, safeguards, and nuclear security as well as fundamentals of nuclear engineering. Dr. Charlton is recognized as one of the leaders in the technical area of nuclear nonproliferation and has over 150 technical publications in refereed journals and conference proceedings. Bartley Ebbinghaus is staff scientist at LLNL leading or advising a num- ber of efforts on nuclear materials attractiveness and related issues for the counterterrorism, intelligence, non-proliferation, and nuclear energy programs. He received his Ph.D. in High Temperature Chemistry from the University of California in Berkeley in 1991 and his B.S. in Chemistry from Southern Methodist University in 1986. Since joining LLNL 1991, Dr. Ebbinghuas has been involved in a number of actinide related projects. From 1991 to 1996, he led various actinide related projects including the volatility of actinides and hazardous metals in thermal processes, puri - fication of actinides by pyrochemistry, and recovery of actinides from wastes. From 1996 to 2000, he led the ceramic form development activity for plutonium immobilization program, which resulted in two patents. From 2003 to 2006, he directed the plutonium analytical and materials characterization work in the LLNL plutonium facility. During this time he led all the materials property testing work at LLNL related to the plutonium pit lifetime assessment. From 2006 to 2009, he moved to Wash- ington, DC, to become the technical advisor to the Nuclear Counterter- rorism Program, which is responsible for understanding the implications of Improvised Nuclear Devices. During his time in DC, Dr. Ebbinghuas
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97 APPENDIX F was instrumental in a review of the technical basis of the DOE Graded Safeguards Table. The Figure of Merit, which is used to quantify nuclear material attractiveness, originated from this study. John Harvey has served as Principal Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Nuclear and Chemical and Biological Defense Programs since July 2009, where he advises on plans, policy, and oversight of the U.S. nuclear weapons program, programs for combating weapons of mass destruction, chemical weapons demilitarization, treaty management, and the work of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. From March 2001 to July 2009, Dr. Harvey served as Director, Policy Planning Staff of the National Nuclear Security Administration where he advised the NNSA Administrator on major policy and program decisions. He was respon - sible for studies and analyses relating to NSC-directed policy reviews, the work of the Nuclear Weapons Council, external advisory boards, and interagency working groups. Dr. Harvey has served on several senior advisory panels. From March 1995 to January 2001, Dr. Harvey served as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear Forces and Missile Defense Policy where he developed and oversaw implementation of U.S. policy governing strategic and theater nuclear forces and ballistic missile defense. For his service in DoD, he was awarded, in September 1985 and in January 1997, the Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service. Dr. Harvey received his B.A. in physics from Rutgers Univer- sity and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in experimental elementary particle physics from the University of Rochester. He is the author or co-author of numerous scientific and technical papers. Olli Heinonen spent 27 years at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna before joining the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School of Government, as a senior fellow. Heinonen served the last 5 years as Deputy Director General of the IAEA, and head of its Department of Safeguards. He led the Agency’s efforts to identify and dismantle nuclear proliferation networks, including the one led by Pakistani scientist A.Q. Khan, and he oversaw its efforts to monitor and contain Iran’s nuclear program. Heinonen led teams of international investigators to examine nuclear programs of concern around the world and inspected nuclear facilities in South Africa, Iraq, North Korea, Syria, Libya, and elsewhere, seeking to ensure that nuclear materials were not diverted for military purposes. He is considered one of the world’s lead - ing experts on Iran’s nuclear program. He led the Agency’s efforts in recent years to implement an analytical culture to guide and complement traditional verification activities. Prior to joining IAEA, he was a Senior Research Officer at the Technical Research Centre of Finland Reactor
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98 PROLIFERATION RISK IN NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES Laboratory in charge of research and development related to nuclear waste solidification and disposal. Edward McGinnis is responsible for the Department of Energy’s inter- national civilian nuclear energy activities, including international nuclear energy research, development and demonstration cooperation, interna- tional framework and partnership development, international nuclear energy policy, and other international civilian nuclear energy-related activities carried out by the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy. As part of these responsibilities, Mr. McGinnis serves as Steer- ing Group Chairman of the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation that consists of approximately 50 participating countries and serves as the Departmental Representative to the U.S. Trade and Promo - tion Coordination Committee on civil nuclear energy matters. Within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Mr. McGinnis has also served as a Vice Chair- man and Principal U.S. Representative to the Generation IV International Forum, and was responsible for U.S. domestic nuclear fuel assurance mat- ters, including technical oversight activities regarding the United States Enrichment Corporation, uranium inventory management matters, as well as U.S. nuclear energy security matters. Joseph F. Pilat is a Program Manager in the National Security Office of the Los Alamos National Laboratory and a Senior Scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars where he co-directs the Nonpro - liferation Forum. He served as Representative of the Secretary of Defense to the Fourth Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and as an adviser to the U.S. Delegation at the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference. Dr. Pilat also served as representative of the Secretary of Defense to the Open Skies negotiations. He has held posi- tions in the Pentagon and the Congressional Research Service, and has taught at Cornell University, Georgetown University, and the College of William and Mary. He is the editor of Atoms for Peace: A Future after Fifty Years? (2007). Daniel B. Poneman has served as Deputy Secretary of Energy since May 2009. Mr. Poneman first joined the Department of Energy in 1989 as a White House Fellow. The next year he joined the National Security Coun - cil staff as Director of Defense Policy and Arms Control. From 1993 to 1996, Mr. Poneman served as Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Nonproliferation and Export Controls at the National Security Council. His responsibilities included the development and implementa - tion of U.S. policy in such areas as peaceful nuclear cooperation, missile technology, space-launch activities, sanctions determinations, chemical
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99 APPENDIX F and biological arms control efforts, and conventional arms transfer policy. During this time, he also participated in negotiations and consultations with governments in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the former Soviet Union. Prior to assuming his responsibilities as Deputy Secretary, Mr. Poneman served as a principal of The Scowcroft Group for 8 years, providing strategic advice to corporations on a wide variety of interna- tional projects and transactions. Between tours of government service he practiced law for 9 years in Washington, DC—first as an associate at Cov - ington & Burling, later as a partner at Hogan & Hartson—assisting clients in regulatory, policy and transactional matters, international arbitration, commercial real estate financing, export controls, and sanctions and trade policy. Mr. Poneman received A.B. and J.D. degrees with honors from Harvard University and an M.Litt. in Politics from Oxford University. He has published widely on national security issues and is the author of Nuclear Power in the Developing World and Argentina: Democracy on Trial. Richard J. K. Stratford is the Director of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Safety & Security in the Bureau of International Security and Nonpro - liferation. He is responsible for the diplomatic aspects of international nuclear energy affairs, nuclear export control policies, nuclear coopera- tion agreements, nuclear safety, physical protection, and international initiatives in nuclear energy technology. Mr. Stratford is a frequent U.S. delegate to the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), where he has represented the United States in the IAEA’s Committee of the Whole. He chaired the Committee in 1997 and 2005. In April 2006, Mr. Stratford was elected to be the Chairman of the Steering Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Devel - opment (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency in Paris, a position he contin- ues to hold. Mr. Stratford is the U.S. Head of Delegation to the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and to the NPT Exporters Committee (Zangger Committee). He was the chief negotiator of the “123” nuclear cooperation agreements with Russia and India, as well as the U.S./India reprocessing agreement completed in 2010. Mr. Stratford was the 2010 recipient of the Henry DeWolf Smyth Nuclear Statesman Award, presented jointly by the American Nuclear Society and the Nuclear Energy Institute. He is a career member of the Senior Executive Service. William Tobey was most recently Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation at the National Nuclear Security Adminis - tration. There, he managed the U.S. government’s largest program to prevent nuclear proliferation and terrorism by detecting, securing, and disposing of dangerous nuclear material. Mr. Tobey also served on the National Security Council Staff in three administrations, in defense policy,
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100 PROLIFERATION RISK IN NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES arms control, and counter-proliferation positions. He has participated in international negotiations ranging from the START talks with the Soviet Union, to the Six Party Talks with North Korea. He also has extensive experience in investment banking and venture capital. Christopher Way is an Associate Professor of Government at Cornell University. He teaches in both the fields of international relations and comparative politics, with his research covering both security studies and political economy. His research on the politics of macroeconomic policy has covered central bank independence, partisan theories of the macroeconomy, labor organization, and inequality in the OECD countries. Professor Way’s recent research focuses on the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and on the non-proliferation regime. He is currently completing projects on the link between personalistic regime types and WMD proliferation, and on the origins and effectiveness of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. He received his Ph.D. from Stanford University. Mark Whitney is the Assistant Deputy Administrator for Nonprolifera- tion and International Security at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In this capacity, he is responsible for DOE’s global programs on nuclear safeguards, nuclear controls, nuclear verification/transparency, and for the development of DOE-NNSA nonproliferation and arms control policy. Mr. Whitney has also served as the Executive Director of the DOE Moscow Office, where he led the Department’s in-country efforts on nuclear security, nonpro - liferation, and energy security. Previous positions Mr. Whitney has held include: President, Global Strategies Consulting; Senior International Program Manager, Science Applications International Corporation; and Director of Russian Programs, Institute for International Cooperative Environmental Research – Florida State University.