• Meaningful and timely public participation should occur throughout the life cycle of a project, so that the public is both informed about—and can comment upon—any decisions made that could affect their community. All stages of permitting should be transparent, with independent advisory reviews.

• Development of a comprehensive environmental impact statement for any proposed uranium mining and processing facility would be an essential element for public participation and the transparent sharing of information.

• A number of detailed specific best-practice documents (e.g., guidelines produced by the World Nuclear Association, International Atomic Energy Agency, and International Radiation Protection Association) exist that describe accepted international best practices for uranium mining and processing projects. Although these documents are by their nature generic, they provide a basis from which specific requirements for any uranium mining and processing projects in Virginia could be developed.

• Some of the worker and public health risks could be mitigated or better controlled if uranium mining, processing, and reclamation are all conducted according to best practices, which at a minimum for workers would include the use of personal dosimetry—including for radon decay products—and a national radiation dose registry for radiation- and radon-related hazards; and exposure limits lowered to at least the levels for radon, diesel gas and particulates, occupational noise, and silica hazards recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

• A well-designed and executed monitoring plan, available to the public, is essential for gauging performance, determining and demonstrating compliance, triggering corrective actions, fostering transparency, and enhancing site-specific understanding. The monitoring strategy, encompassing baseline monitoring, operational monitoring, and decommissioning and postclosure monitoring, should be subject to annual updates and independent reviews to incorporate new knowledge or enhanced understanding gained from analysis of the monitoring data.

• Because the impacts of uranium mining and processing projects are, by their nature, localized, modern best practice is for project implementation and operations, whenever possible, to



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