the career counseling center.” Another need, she said, is to provide better access to federal resources for local communities and regions. “We as the federal government need to break through our own silos so that you, the state or the regional community, are not sent around to 35 different agencies to promote one specific objective.”

She closed by applauding the “vigorous leadership” she had seen in Hawaii on the part of President Greenwood, Governor Abercrombie, the university, and the “very committed congressional delegation.” The symposium itself, Dr. Lew concluded, was clear evidence that “you’re starting to think not only about what can you do now, but what you can do in the long term. This is critical. I’d like to commend all of you for your foresight, and I appreciate the privilege to be a part of this important conference.”


Dr. Harris said he appreciated Dr. Lew’s reference to possible new metrics for measuring innovation success. He said that simple measures such as publication counts, patents, and companies were insufficient. “I think we went off track during the post-World War II period when we didn’t really compete, because we didn’t have any competition. We have to compete now, and we’re not doing a very good job at it. I hope you’ll begin to think about how you nudge a state such as yours to do things differently.” He suggested a pilot program or a federal and state partnership where states, as well as the federal government, each put money on the table. Historically the states have depended on the federal government for research, and “that means the legislators have not paid attention to the workforce,” he said, “or to what R&D really means. A few states have made progress, but by and large we have failed to engage local leaders and we have failed to get them the information. So I think you have a huge opportunity.”

Dr. Lew said that she agreed with this comment because it emphasizes how many elements there are in the innovation infrastructure, which includes not only roads and bridges, but also education, which “needs tremendous revitalization. I don’t think most people realize that almost 30 percent of all Americans do not graduate from high school. Of our population, 18 percent are illiterate, and more than 60 percent can read at only a 7th-grade level. This makes it hard to develop an innovation economy and knowledge-based industries.” Investment in education can not be made just from the top down, she said, but has to engage the states and communities “where folks know what the problems are, and where the most innovative solutions can come from.”

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