•   One of the most sensitive areas for teaching about dual use and related issues is the political and historical context of different countries, under which certain words have additional underlying connotations. The word “security” is such a word and its use may make faculty reluctant to become involved in anything that may be associated with “security” even if far removed from politics. This supports the point already made above about the advantages of embedding dual use issues within the broader framework of responsible conduct. It also may affect the choice of the local partners, for example, understanding whether formal or informal endorsement by certain government or education officials is essential or how important it might be to work with an institution that by virtue of its prestige or connections can provide flexibility for teaching new courses for its faculty.

•   The importance of local context for the successful design of a faculty development program underscores the need of a preparatory site visit(s) as part of the planning process. One outcome of the Trieste workshop was the decision to send a small team of staff and Committee members to Egypt to meet with local faculty, university officials, and government administrators in Fall 2011. The purpose of these meetings is to inform university and government leaders about the planned workshop, and acquire their active support for its successful execution, for the participation of junior faculty, for any follow-on activities originating from the participants, and for the initiation of a network of faculty workshop participants who will subsequently become trainers for other faculty and their students. An important point to discuss will be the mechanism by which the participants will be chosen so that local mechanisms will be considered. As mentioned in the previous bullet, the advice of well-chosen local partners is invaluable in understanding the political sensitivities and planning a successful visit.

Advantages of a “science of learning” approach. The enthusiasm among participants for their experience with active learning reinforced the message from the Warsaw workshop about the value of such approaches in education about dual use and related, broader issues. The relevance of adopting such methods for classrooms and laboratories across the world is supported by the decision by the World Health Organization to revamp its biosafety train-the-trainer programs to adopt similar active learning methods (WHO 2006, 2010; for more details see Appendix E).

Sustainability of efforts: Value of a network approach and institutional support. As already mentioned, a continuing challenge for efforts to promote new concepts, materials, and pedagogical approaches is the competition for space in a crowded curriculum. It is essential that, from the beginning, the planning for any such effort include a focus on strategies to make the project sustainable. The lessons from efforts in many other areas reinforce the value of building networks of faculty who can share experiences and provide mutual reinforcement (NRC 2010). Follow-up meetings and



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