Appendix C
About the Authors

COMMITTEE MEMBERS

Dr. Rita Colwell (Chair) is Chairman of Canon US Life Sciences, Inc. and Distinguished University Professor both at the University of Maryland at College Park and at Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. Her interests are focused on global infectious diseases, water, and health, and she is currently developing an international network to address emerging infectious diseases and water issues, including safe drinking water for both the developed and developing world. Dr. Colwell has held many advisory positions in the U.S. Government, nonprofit science policy organizations, and private foundations, as well as in the international scientific research community. Dr. Colwell is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. Dr. Colwell holds a B.S. in Bacteriology and an M.S. in Genetics, from Purdue University, and a Ph.D. in Oceanography from the University of Washington.

Dr. Enriqueta Bond served, from 1994 to 2008, as the first full time President of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund (BWF), a private, independent foundation dedicated to advancing the medical sciences by supporting research and other scientific and educational activities. During her presidency Dr. Bond guided BWF in its transition from a corporate to a private independent foundation. Prior to joining the BWF, Dr. Bond served as the Chief Executive Officer for the Institute of Medicine. In 1997, Dr. Bond was elected as a full member to the Institute of Medicine. In 2004, she was elected as a fellow to the American Association for the Advancement of Science for her distinguished contributions to the study and analysis of policy for the advancement of the health sciences. Dr. Bond is Chairman of the NRC’s Board on African Science Academy Development and a member of the Forum on Microbial Threats. She is a past member of the Report Review Committee as well as numerous other study committees. Dr. Bond is the recipient of numerous honors, including the 2008 Order of the Long Leaf Pine award from the state of North Carolina. This is the highest honor the governor can bestow on a citizen and was awarded to Dr. Bond for her efforts to improve science education for children of North Carolina. She has also received the Institute of Medicine Walsh McDermott Medal, in recognition of distinguished service to the National



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Appendix C About the Authors COMMITTEE MEMBERS Dr. Rita Colwell (Chair) is Chairman of Canon US Life Sciences, Inc. and Distinguished University Professor both at the University of Maryland at College Park and at Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. Her interests are focused on global infectious diseases, water, and health, and she is currently developing an international network to address emerging infectious diseases and water issues, including safe drinking water for both the developed and developing world. Dr. Colwell has held many advisory positions in the U.S. Government, nonprofit science policy organizations, and private foundations, as well as in the international scientific research community. Dr. Colwell is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. Dr. Colwell holds a B.S. in Bacteriology and an M.S. in Genetics, from Purdue University, and a Ph.D. in Oceanography from the University of Washington. Dr. Enriqueta Bond served, from 1994 to 2008, as the first full time President of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund (BWF), a private, independent foundation dedicated to advancing the medical sciences by supporting research and other scientific and educational activities. During her presidency Dr. Bond guided BWF in its transition from a corporate to a private independent foundation. Prior to joining the BWF, Dr. Bond served as the Chief Executive Officer for the Institute of Medicine. In 1997, Dr. Bond was elected as a full member to the Institute of Medicine. In 2004, she was elected as a fellow to the American Association for the Advancement of Science for her distinguished contributions to the study and analysis of policy for the advancement of the health sciences. Dr. Bond is Chairman of the NRC’s Board on African Science Academy Development and a member of the Forum on Microbial Threats. She is a past member of the Report Review Committee as well as numerous other study committees. Dr. Bond is the recipient of numerous honors, including the 2008 Order of the Long Leaf Pine award from the state of North Carolina. This is the highest honor the governor can bestow on a citizen and was awarded to Dr. Bond for her efforts to improve science education for children of North Carolina. She has also received the Institute of Medicine Walsh McDermott Medal, in recognition of distinguished service to the National 27

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APPENDIX C 28 Academies, and the National Academy of Sciences Professional Staff Award. She received her bachelor’s degree from Wellesley College, her M.A. from the University of Virginia, and her Ph.D. in molecular biology and biochemical genetics from Georgetown University. Dr. John Clements is a Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at Tulane University School of Medicine. After receiving his doctorate in 1979 from the University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas, Dr. Clements completed a National Research Council Associateship at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Washington, DC. In 1980, Dr. Clements was appointed as Assistant Professor in the Departments of Microbiology and Medicine at the University of Rochester School of Medicine in Rochester, NY. In 1982, Dr. Clements joined the faculty at Tulane University. Dr. Clements has served as Professor and Chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology since 1999. Dr. Clements served as Vice Dean for Research from 2006 to 2009 and in 2009 was appointed as Director of the Tulane Center for Infectious Diseases. Dr. Clements’s research has been continuously funded from a variety of Public Health Service and Department of Defense. He is currently Director of the Tulane/Xavier Vaccine Development/Engineering Project supported by the Department of Defense. Dr. Clements is also Co-Director of the South Louisiana Institute for Infectious Disease Research and Co-Director of the Louisiana Vaccine Center, both collaborative projects between Tulane University and Louisiana State University Health sciences Center in New Orleans. Research in Dr. Clements’s laboratory has resulted in more than 100 peer reviewed publications and book chapters, and thirteen issued patents. Dr. Clements has served on numerous scientific panels and Editorial Boards. He currently serves on the Infectious Disease Subcommittee of the Defense Health Board (a Federal Advisory Committee) and is a member of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) H1N1 Vaccine Safety Risk Assessment Working Group (VSRAWG). Dr. Clements also serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of PATH-EVI, an international non-profit organization whose primary goal is to develop vaccines against enteric diseases for children in developing countries, and on the Steering Committee of the Western Regional Center for Excellence in Biodefense Research. In 2003, Dr. Clements was trained as a U.N. Weapons Inspector (Biologic) in the 7th United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) training program in Vienna. In 2003, and again in 2004, Dr. Clements was a member of the Iraq Survey Group in Baghdad as a Subject Matter Expert in Weapons of Mass Destruction and dual use equipment and programs. In 2009, Dr. Clements served on a National Academy of Sciences committee on biosafety and personnel reliability in laboratories that conduct research of biological select agents and toxins (resulting in publication of the National Research Council policy for Responsible Research with Biological Select Agents and Toxins).Dr. Clements served on active duty with the US Marine Corps from 1966-1972 and was a member of the USMC Individual Ready Reserves from 1972-1991. He was Honorably Discharged at the rank of LTCOL from the US Marine Corps Reserves in 1991.

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APPENDIX C 29 Dr. Nancy Connell is professor of medicine at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ) -New Jersey Medical School. She is also director of the UMDNJ Center for BioDefense, which was established in 1999 and is the recipient of $11.5 million in congressional recommendations (2000-2006) for research into the detection and diagnosis of biological warfare agents and biodefense preparedness. Dr. Connell also is director of the Biosafety Level 3 Facility of UMDNJ’s Center for the Study of Emerging and Re-emerging Pathogens and chairs the Recombinant DNA Subcommittee of the university’s Institutional Biosafety Committee and she has worked with several international programs on dual use issues. She is past chair of the National Institutes of Health’s Center for Scientific Review Study Section HIBP (Host Interactions with Bacterial Pathogens, which reviews bacterial-pathogenesis submissions to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She is current chair of the F13 infectious diseases and microbiology fellowship panel. Dr. Connell’s involvement in biological weapons control began in 1984, when she was chair of the Committee on the Military Use of Biological Research, a subcommittee of the Council for Responsible Genetics, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Dr. Connell received her Ph.D. in microbial genetics from Harvard University. Her major research focus is the interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the macrophage. Dr. Clarissa Dirks has just begun a faculty position at The Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington. Clarissa earned her B.S. in Microbiology from Arizona State University and Ph.D. in Molecular and Cellular Biology from the University of Washington. She was a postdoctoral fellow at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. In her previous position at the University of Washington, she oversaw undergraduate programs funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, taught undergraduate courses in biology, and led professional development seminars for graduate students. As part of her science education research endeavors, she created educational materials that aim to engage students in active learning and develop their metacognitive skills. Her primary focus was to assist incoming freshman, particularly underrepresented minorities and those who are economically disadvantaged. She serves on local and national committees to enhance diversity in the sciences. As a faculty member at Evergreen, she is continuing this work in partnership with the Evergreen Native American Research Institute. Her scientific research aims to better understand the evolutionary principles that underlie the emergence, spread, and containment of infectious disease by studying the co-evolution of retroviruses and their primate hosts. Dr. Mohamed El-Faham is Director of the Center for Special Studies and Programs (CSSP), Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt. His is also a Professor and Director of Power Systems Group at the Department of Electrical and Computer Control Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport in Alexandria. He received his B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Alexandria and his M.Sc. and D.Sc. in Electrical Engineering from the George Washington University, Washington D.C., USA. He is a Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE). Dr. El-Faham is

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APPENDIX C 30 author/co-author of a number of publications. As director of the CSSP, he organizes, each year, a number of major conferences in the fields of science technology and education. Dr. Elizabeth Heitman received her PhD from Rice University in 1988. She has extensive expertise in biomedical ethics, responsible conduct of research, and ethics in public health, as well as experience with biodefense-related ethical decision-making as member of the Policy, Ethics, and Law Core of the Southeast Regional Center of Excellence for Emerging Infections and Biodefense (SERCEB). Her primary research addresses the evaluation of education in the responsible conduct of research, and the cultural awareness and professional socialization of students and researchers. Dr. Heitman is the Director of a four-year, research ethics education program for Costa Rican biomedical researchers and research ethics review committees sponsored by the NIH’s Fogarty International Center and a member of the Clinical Research Ethics Key Function Committee of the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium. She is the coauthor of The Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health Sciences (with Drs. Ruth Ellen Bulger and Stanley Joel Reiser). Dr. Adel A. F. Mahmoud is a professor at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and in the Department of Molecular Biology at Princeton University. He has recently retired as president of Merck Vaccines of Merck & Company, Inc. Before that, Dr. Mahmoud served at Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals as Chairman of Medicine and Physician-in-Chief. Dr. Mahmoud’s academic pursuits focused on investigations of the determinants of infection and disease in human schistosomiasis and helminthic infections He has led the effort to develop new vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, rotavirus, shingles, and human papillomavirus. Dr. Mahmoud’s leadership in setting global health strategies shaped the agenda of the Forum on Microbial Threats of the Institute of Medicine in recent years by tackling such topical issues as biological threats and bioterrorism; SARS; and Pandemic Flu. He is a member of the Expert Advisory Panel on Parasitic Diseases of the World Health Organization (WHO). He was elected to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 1987, and he is a member of the NAS National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity and Committee on Scientific Communications and National Security (CSCANS). Dr. Mahmoud received an M.D. from the University of Cairo and a Ph.D. from the University of London, School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Dr. James H. Stith is Vice President Emeritus for the American Institute of Physics (AIP). While an officer of the Institute, he had oversight responsibilities for AIP’s Magazine Division, the Media and Government Relations Division, the Education Division, the Center for the History of Physics, the Statistical Research Division and the Careers Division. Throughout his career, he has been an advocate for programs that ensure ethnic and gender diversity in the sciences. His doctorate in physics was earned from The Pennsylvania State University, and his masters and bachelors in physics were received from Virginia State University. A physics education researcher, his primary interests are in Program Evaluation, and Teacher Preparation and Enhancement. He

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APPENDIX C 31 was formerly a Professor of Physics at The Ohio State University and Professor of Physics at the United States Military Academy. He has also been a Visiting Associate Professor at the United Air Force Academy, a Visiting Scientist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a Visiting Scientist at the University of Washington, and an Associate Engineer at the Radio Corporation of America. He is a past president of the American Association of Physics Teachers, past president of the National Society of Black Physicists, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a Fellow of the American Physical Society, a Chartered Fellow of the National Society of Black Physicists, and a member of the Ohio Academy of Science. He was named a Distinguished Alumni of Penn State, an Honorary Member of Sigma Pi Sigma the physics honor society, a National Academies Education Mentor in the Life Sciences and a ScienceMaker (by HistoryMakers). Stith was chosen as one of the “50 Most Important Blacks in Research Science” by the magazines Science Spectrum and US Black Engineer & Information Technology for his “lifelong work in making science part of global society.” Additionally, he has been awarded a Doctor of Humane Letters by his alma mater, Virginia State University. He is married and has three adult daughters and two grandchildren. NATIONAL ACADEMIES STAFF Dr. Lida Anestidou is Senior Program Officer at the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, where she directs a diverse portfolio of studies on the use of laboratory animals; biodefense and biosecurity; and research integrity/responsible conduct of research. Prior to this position she was faculty at the Center for Biomedical Ethics and Society, Vanderbilt University Medical Center. She earned her doctorate in biomedical sciences from the University of Texas at Houston. Working with physiologist Norman Weisbrodt, she explored the effects of nitric oxide on the motility of the gastrointestinal musculature. Working with research integrity expert and biomedical ethics educator Elizabeth Heitman, she concurrently pursued her interests in biomedical ethics, scientific integrity and science policy. Dr. Anestidou also holds a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree from Greece (her home country) and an M.S. in Veterinary Sciences from the University of Florida. She is an editorial board member of Science and Engineering Ethics, Lab Animal, and SciTech Lawyer and an ad hoc reviewer for the American Journal of Bioethics. She is a member of the National Conference of Lawyers and Scientists. Dr. Anestidou serves as an expert reviewer in the Ethics Evaluation of grant applications to the 7th Framework Program of the European Research Council and the European Commission Directorate General Research. Dr. Jo L. Husbands is a Scholar/Senior Project Director with the Board on Life Sciences of the U.S. National Academies. Dr. Husbands managed the project that produced the 2004 report, Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism, and directs the international activities following up on its recommendations, including the 2nd

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APPENDIX C 32 International Forum on Biosecurity held in Budapest in March 2008 and an international workshop on biosecurity education to be held in the fall of 2009. She represents the National Academy of Sciences on the Biosecurity Working Group of the InterAcademy Panel on International Issues, which also includes the academies of China, Cuba, the Netherlands (chair), Nigeria, and the United Kingdom. She managed a joint project with AAAS that has carried out a survey of AAAS members in the life sciences to provide some of the first empirical data about scientists’ knowledge of dual use issues and their attitudes toward their responsibilities to help mitigate the risks of misuse of scientific research. From 2005-2008 Dr. Husbands was a senior project director with the Academies’ Program on Development, Security, and Cooperation where, along with her work on international security, she was staff director for a USAID-sponsored report, Improving Democracy Assistance: Building Knowledge through Evaluations and Research (2008). From 1991-2005 she was the Director of the Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) of the National Academy of Sciences and its Working Group on Biological Weapons Control. In 1998-99 she also served as the first Director of the Program on Development, Security, and Cooperation in the Academies’ Office of International Affairs. From 1986-91 she was Director of the Academies’ Project on Democratization and a Senior Research Associate for its Committee on International Conflict and Cooperation. Before joining the National Academies, she worked for several Washington, DC-based nongovernmental organizations focused on international security. Dr. Husbands is currently an adjunct professor in the Security Studies Program at Georgetown University, where she teaches a course on the International Arms Trade. She is a member of the Advisory Council of Women in International Security, the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the Global Agenda Council on Illicit Trade of the World Economic Forum, and the editorial board of International Studies Perspectives. She is also a Fellow of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. She holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Minnesota and a Masters in International Public Policy (International Economics) from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. Dr. Jay B. Labov is senior staff member of the National Research Council’s Center for Education. In this capacity, Dr. Labov leads an institution-wide effort to leverage the National Academies’ work in education by helping to make more deliberate connections between the work of the Center for Education, the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and the program units of the National Research Council. He is the principal liaison on education activities between the program units of the National Academies and its Office of Communications, with the goal of enhancing communication with outside stakeholders about the Academies’ work in education and the public’s understanding of science and technology. He also has been the study director for several NRC reports, Evaluating and Improving Undergraduate Teaching in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology (2003); Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science

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APPENDIX C 33 in U.S. High Schools (2002); Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millennium (2000); Transforming Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology (1999); Serving the Needs of Pre-College Science and Mathematics Education: Impact of a Digital National Library on Teacher Education and Practice (1999); and Developing a Digital National Library for Undergraduate Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology Education (1998). He has been Director of the Center’s Committee on Undergraduate Science Education and oversees the National Academy of Science’s efforts to improve the teaching of evolution in the public schools. Prior to assuming his position at the NRC Dr. Labov was a member of the biology faculty for 18 years at Colby College in Waterville Maine. Mr. Carl-Gustav Anderson is a Program Associate with the Board on Life Sciences of the National Research Council. He received a B.A. in philosophy from American University in 2009. He is currently completing his M.A. in Philosophy at American University. He has worked closely with the All Women’s Action Society (Malaysia), helping to engage young men in feminist dialogue and to present a feminist response to the unique identity politics of contemporary Malaysia. His current research focuses on Buddhist encounters with the West, with particular emphasis on syncretic responses to western feminism, communism, transcendental philosophy, and existentialism in the early 20th Century. Since joining the Board on Life Sciences in 2009, he has served as Program Associate for variety of projects including, among others, Responsible Research with Biological Select Agents and Toxins (2009), Challenges and Opportunities for Education about Dual Use Issues in Life Sciences Research (2010), and Sequence-Based Classification of Select Agents: A Brighter Line (2010). In addition to several ongoing studies, he also serves as Program Associate for the United States-Canada Regional Committee to the International Brain Research Organization.