Research in the Life Sciences
with Dual Use Potential

An International Faculty Development Project on
Education About the Responsible Conduct of Science

Committee on Developing a Framework for an International Faculty Development
Project on Education about Research in the Life Sciences with Dual Use Potential

Board on Life Sciences
Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
             OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

In cooperation with

Bibliotheca Alexandrina
TWAS, the academy of sciences for the developing world

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Research in the Life Sciences with Dual Use Potential An International Faculty Development Project on Education About the Responsible Conduct of Science Committee on Developing a Framework for an International Faculty Development Project on Education about Research in the Life Sciences with Dual Use Potential Board on Life Sciences Division on Earth and Life Studies In cooperation with Bibliotheca Alexandrina TWAS, the academy of sciences for the developing world THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. S-LMAQM-10-GR-087 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of State. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-22117-7 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-22117-X Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu/. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.  

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON DEVELOPING A FRAMEWORK FOR AN INTERNATIONAL FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ON EDUCATION ABOUT RESEARCH IN THE LIFE SCIENCES WITH DUAL USE POTENTIAL RITA R. COLWELL (Chair), Distinguished University Professor, University of Maryland & Johns Hopkins University; Honorary Chairperson and Senior Advisor, Canon U.S. Life Sciences, Inc. ENRIQUETA C. BOND, President Emeritus, Burroughs Wellcome Fund JOHN D. CLEMENTS, Professor and Chair, Department of Microbiology and Immunology; Vice Dean for Research, School of Medicine, Tulane University NANCY D. CONNELL, Professor of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ); Director, UMDNJ Center for Biodefense CLARISSA DIRKS, Faculty, Evergreen State College MOHAMED El-FAHAM, Director of the Center for Special Studies and Programmes (CSSP), Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt ELIZABETH HEITMAN, Associate Professor of Medical Ethics, Center for Biomedical Ethics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center ADEL A. F. MAHMOUD, Professor, Woodrow Wilson School, Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University JAMES H. STITH, Vice President Emeritus, Physics Resources Center, American Institute of Physics CONSULTANTS EIMAN ALEEM, Associate Professor of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Egypt MONA MOSTAFA MOHAMED, Associate Professor, Department of Zoology, Cairo University, Egypt ALAA IBRAHIM, Assistant Professor, Physics Department, American University in Cairo, Egypt STAFF LIDA ANESTIDOU, Study Director and Senior Program Officer, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research JO L. HUSBANDS, Scholar and Senior Project Director, Board on Life Sciences JAY B. LABOV, Senior Scientist, Board on Life Sciences CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Program Associate, Board on Life Sciences FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director, Board on Life Sciences; Acting Director, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research v

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BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES KEITH R. YAMAMOTO (Chair), University of California, San Francisco, CA BONNIE L. BASSLER, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ VICKI L. CHANDLER, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Palo Alto, CA SEAN EDDY, HHMI Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, VA MARK D. FITZSIMMONS, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Chicago, IL DAVID R. FRANZ, Midwest Research Institute, Frederick, MD LOUIS J. GROSS, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN RICHARD A. JOHNSON, Arnold and Porter, Washington, D.C. CATO T. LAURENCIN, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CN ROBERT M. NEREM, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA CAMILLE PARMESAN, University of Texas, Austin, TX MURIEL E. POSTON, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY ALISON G. POWER, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY MARGARET RILEY, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA BRUCE W. STILLMAN, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY CYNTHIA WOLBERGER, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD MARY WOOLLEY, Research!America, Alexandria, VA STAFF FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director JO L. HUSBANDS, Scholar and Senior Project Director JAY B. LABOV, Senior Scientist and Program Director for Biology Education KATHERINE W. BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer MARILEE K. SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Senior Program Officer INDIA HOOK-BARNARD, Program Officer KEEGAN SAWYER, Program Officer BETHELHEM M. BANJAW, Financial Associate CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Program Associate SAYYEDA AYESHA AHMED, Senior Program Assistant ORIN LUKE, Senior Program Assistant vi

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Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of the independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following for their review of this report: Stephanie J. Bird, Science and Engineering Ethics, USA Alastair Hay, University of Leeds, UK Heba Kassem, Alexandria Faculty of Medicine, Egypt Jens Kuhn, Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, USA Michelle Withers, West Virginia University, USA Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William Brinkley, Baylor College of Medicine, USA. Appointed by the National Research Council, the coordinator was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests with the author committee and the institution. The Committee on Developing a Framework for an International Faculty Development Project on Education about Research in the Life Sciences with Dual Use Potential expresses its appreciation to TWAS, the academy of sciences for the developing world, for hosting the planning meeting at its headquarters in Trieste, Italy. Appreciation is also extended to the Bibliotheca Alexandrina for its invaluable assistance in getting this project off the ground. vii

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Acronyms BEP Biosecurity Engagement Program, U.S. Department of State BWC Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention EPI Egyptian Prototype Institute HHMI Howard Hughes Medical Institute MENA Middle East and North Africa NASI National Academies Summer Institute NRC National Research Council, U.S. National Academies RCR Responsible conduct of research RI Research integrity TWAS The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World ix

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Contents 1 BACKGROUND ....................................................................................................................................................... 1 THE CONTEXT ........................................................................................................................................................... 1 INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ON DUAL USE: ROLES OF THE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL .............................. 2 THE “SCIENCE OF LEARNING” ................................................................................................................................... 3 2 THE NRC’S MENA PROJECT .............................................................................................................................. 7 THE PLANNING MEETING ........................................................................................................................................ 10 3 FRAMEWORK FOR A FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM............................................................... 12 PLANNING MEETING OUTCOMES: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS .............................................................................. 12 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EGYPTIAN PROTOTYPE INSTITUTE ................................................................ 14 DETAILS OF THE EGYPTIAN PROTOTYPE INSTITUTE: GOALS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES ...................................... 16 4 SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................................................. 21 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................................................... 23 APPENDIXES A RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE NRC REPORT CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EDUCATION ABOUT DUAL USE ISSUES IN THE LIFE SCIENCES ................................................................................................................... 25 B STATEMENT OF TASK .......................................................................................................................................... 27 C ABOUT THE AUTHORS ......................................................................................................................................... 29 D PLANNING MEETING AGENDA AND PARTICIPANT LIST ....................................................................................... 36 E EXAMPLES OF OTHER NETWORKS OR TRAIN-THE-TRAINERS PROGRAMS ............................................................ 42 xi

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