1. Given the critical role that margins of safety play in maintaining well control, guidelines should be established to ensure that the design approach incorporates protection against the various credible risks associated with the drilling and completion processes. (Recommendation 2.1)

2. All primary cemented barriers to flow should be tested to verify quality, quantity, and location of cement. The integrity of primary mechanical barriers (such as the float equipment, liner tops, and wellhead seals) should be verified by using the best available test procedures. All tests should have established procedures and predefined criteria for acceptable performance and should be subject to independent, near-real-time review by a competent authority. (Recommendation 2.3)

3. BOP systems should be redesigned to provide robust and reliable cutting, sealing, and separation capabilities for the drilling environment to which they are being applied and under all foreseeable operating conditions of the rig on which they are installed. Test and maintenance procedures should be established to ensure operability and reliability appropriate to their environment of application. Furthermore, advances in BOP technology should be evaluated from the perspective of overall system safety. Operator training for emergency BOP operation should be improved to the point that the full capabilities of a more reliable BOP can be competently and correctly employed when needed in the future. (Recommendation 3.1)

4. Instrumentation and expert system decision aids should be used to provide timely warning of loss of well control to drillers on the rig (and ideally to onshore drilling monitors as well). If the warning is inhibited or not addressed in an appropriate time interval, autonomous operation of the blind shear rams, emergency disconnect system, general alarm, and other safety systems on the rig should occur. (Recommendations 3.5 and 4.1)

5. Efforts to reduce the probability of future blowouts should be complemented by capabilities of mitigating the consequences of a loss of well control. Industry should ensure timely access to demonstrated well-capping and containment capabilities. (Recommendation 5.6)

6. The United States should fully implement a hybrid regulatory system that incorporates a limited number of prescriptive elements into a proactive, goal-oriented risk management system for health, safety, and the environment. (Recommendation 6.1)

7. The Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) of the U.S. Department of the Interior and other regulators should identify and enforce safety-critical points during well construction and abandonment that warrant explicit regulatory review and approval before operations can proceed. (Recommendation 6.6)

8. A single U.S. government agency should be designated with responsibility for ensuring an integrated approach for system safety for all offshore drilling activities. (Recommendation 6.15)

9. Operating companies should have ultimate responsibility and accountability for well integrity, because only they are in a position to have visibil-



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