JEFF M. BINGHAM is senior advisor on space and aeronautics on the Republican staff of the Subcommittee on Science and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the U.S. Senate. He served as chief of staff for Senator Jake Garn from 1974-1990, and throughout that service was heavily involved in the Senator’s space-related activity. Mr. Bingham was also a NASA consultant and participant in the Synthesis Group, which was charged with developing alternative architectures for missions to the Moon and Mars under the Space Exploration Initiative. He was a senior policy analyst for SAIC and supported the Johnson Space Center New Initiatives Office in strategic planning and exploration policy activities. In 1994 to 1996, Mr. Bingham served as legislative coordinator for the International Space Station Program. From 1996 to 1999, he managed the Space Station Information Center. In 2000, Mr. Bingham supported the Bush-Cheney NASA Transition Team and was appointed by the White House Personnel Office as special assistant to NASA Chief of Staff Courtney A. Stadd. Mr. Bingham then served as associate administrator for legislative affairs at NASA Headquarters. In 2002, he was appointed senior advisor/special assistant to the NASA administrator. Mr. Bingham left NASA in 2004 and spent a year writing, speaking, and consulting. In 2005, Mr. Bingham accepted the appointment as staff director for the Subcommittee on Science and Space, which had authorization and oversight jurisdiction for NASA and NSF. In that capacity, Mr. Bingham was charged with the development and drafting of the 2005 NASA Authorization Act, which was signed into law on December 30, 2005. During the 110th Congress, Mr. Bingham assumed his current position and in that capacity participated in drafting, consideration, and passage of the 2008 NASA Authorization Act. With the reorganization of the committee in the 111th Congress, he continues to provide staff support at the full committee level and for the newly reorganized subcommittee. In that capacity, he served as one of the principal staff involved in drafting and securing passage of the NASA Authorization Act of 2010.

ROGER BLANDFORD is director of the Kavli Institute of Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University. He is a native of England and took his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees at Cambridge University. Following postdoctoral research at Cambridge, Princeton University, and University of California, Berkeley, he took up a faculty position at the California Institute of Technology in 1976, where he was appointed as the Richard Chace Tolman Professor of Theoretical Astrophysis. In 2003 he became the first director of the Kavli Institute of Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and the Luke Blossom Chair in the School of Humanities and Science. His research interests include black hole astrophysics, cosmology, gravitational lensing, cosmic ray physics, and compact stars. He is a fellow of the Royal Society and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

ROGER-MAURICE BONNET, executive director of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI), is a solar physicist mostly known for his early work in the study and observation of the ultraviolet radiation. His early work concerned the study of solar radiation and solar irradiance. He has also been involved in the problems of solar radiation forcing on Earth. As an instrumentalist, he designed several original telescopes and spectrometers. He was responsible for the design of the telescope that obtained the first pictures of a comet nucleus (Halley) with the European Space Agency (ESA) Giotto probe in 1986. From 1969 to 1983, he was the director of the Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planétaire of the French CNRS (now re-named Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, IAS). He then became director of ESA’s scientific programme from 1983 until 2001, where he defined and led the Horizon 2000 program and established the basis and structure of the Living Planet Earth Sciences program. Dr. Bonnet became director general for science at CNES, the French space agency, in 2002 and is presently the executive director of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland. He is president of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and a member of the Royal Scientific Academy of Sweden and the Société Royale des Sciences de Liège and of the International Academy of Astronautics, from which he received the Von Karman award in 2009. He is also doctor honoris causa of the Universities of



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