here. The attributes of C. papaveracea and B. papaveris are listed in Table 5-2 with the two isolates studied by O’Neill et al. (2000) as reference strains. When it is unclear which of the two species was studied, we refer to both in this manner: C. papaveracea/B. papaveris.

C. papaveracea/B. papaveris was reported as a pathogen of poppy by Milatoviæ (1975a,b) and Czyzewska and Zarzycka (1960). C. papaveracea and B. papaveris are seedborne pathogens that are widely distributed around the world wherever poppy is grown but are most commonly observed in Europe and Asia (Schmitt and Lipscomb 1975). Both can cause serious damage to poppy when conditions for disease are optimal (Krikorian and Ledbetter 1975; Schmitt and Lipscomb 1975). C. papaveracea/B. papaveris attacks plant roots and parts above the ground; disease symptoms include seedling damping-off, girdling of roots, and lesions on leaves, stems, and capsules (Meffert 1950; O’Neill et al. 2000).

TABLE 5-1 Fungi Used in Various Papaver Mycoherbicide Studies

Fungal Strain (Reference) Identification Given in Reference Identification by Inderbitzin et al. 2006
Strain 7359 (Meffert 1950) Dendryphion penicillatum Crivellia papaveracea
 
Strain 3 (Meffert 1950) Helminthosporium papaveris Brachycladium papaveris
 
Isolates used by Del Serrone and Annesi 1990 Dendryphion state of P. papaveracea Strains not studied by Inderbitzin et al. 2006. Inferred to be a heterothallic fungus.
 
Strain Cf96 (Farr et al. 2000) Dendryphion penicillatum Crivellia papaveracea
 
Strain Pf96 (Farr et al. 2000) Pleospora papaveracea Brachycladium papaveris
 
Strain Cf96 (O’Neill et al. 2000) Dendryphion penicillatum Crivellia papaveracea
 
Strain B96 (O’Neill et al. 2000) Pleospora papaveracea Brachycladium papaveris
 
Strain Pf96 (Bailey et al. 2000a, 2000b) Pleospora papaveracea Brachycladium papaveris
 
Strain Cf96 (Bailey et al. 2000b) Dendryphion penicillatum Crivellia papaveracea
 
No strain number; inferred to be Pf96 (Bailey et al. 2004a) Pleospora papaveracea Brachycladium papaveris (if the isolate is indeed Pf96)
 
Strain Pf96 (Bailey et al. 2004b) Pleospora papaveracea Brachycladium papaveris
Strain C-6-3 (UNODC 2002) Pleospora papaveracea (Not studied by Inderbitzin et al. 2006)


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