F. oxysporum f.sp. cannabis and F. oxysporum f.sp. erythroxyli are soilborne, root-infecting pathogens; for greatest efficacy, they should be delivered to the soil. Aerial application of dry formulations, such as prills and pellets, could reduce the efficacy of such soilborne pathogens because the formulations would be subject to scattering by wind, which would lead to nonuniform, discontinuous placement of the inoculum over the target area and reduce the size of the plant-pathogen interface.
C. papaveracea/B. papaveris is a pathogen that attacks primarily the aerial parts of opium poppy; for greatest efficacy, it should be sprayed on the foliage of the plants. All tests of this pathogen have used a wet application. Aerial application of liquid formulations would be subject to wind-driven drift, which would lead to irregular deposition on the target area. The large amount of water needed for aerial delivery of the mycoherbicide could be an even more important limiting factor. Low-volume and ultra-low-volume applications have not been tried with the proposed mycoherbicides.
• What sort of facility would be required for the large-scale Industrial manufacture of the proposed mycoherbicides?
An entity with industrial-scale liquid or solid-state fermentation and formulation capabilities and capacity to produce sufficient tonnage of the finished products per year would be needed for large-scale manufacture of mycoherbicides. The experience gained in industrial production of registered mycoherbicides could be adapted to produce the materials needed.
• What sort of equipment and technology would be required for the delivery of the proposed mycoherbicides on a large scale?
Delivery of the mycoherbicides is expected to pose a challenge. The most likely scenario is aerial application of the proposed mycoherbicides from an aircraft capable of delivering a dry or liquid formulation.
On the basis of published data, the Fusarium mycoherbicides would be best delivered as dry formulations and the Crivellia/Brachycladium mycoherbicide as a spray. However, the latter appears impractical because of the amount of water required for spraying and the possible inability to apply from low altitudes.
• What is the overall technical feasibility of the large-scale industrial manufacture of the proposed mycoherbicides?
Technology for large-scale industrial production of commercial mycoherbicides