was 128,351 hectares in Afghanistan and 35,787 hectares in Myanmar. After eradication efforts, about 123,000 and 31,700 hectares of opium poppy were harvestable, respectively (see Table 1-3). Estimates for Mexico in 2009 were not available, but estimates from previous years suggest that it maintained its third-place status as in 2008. Other countries in which opium poppy is cultivated include Pakistan, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Thailand, Vietnam, and Colombia (UNODC 2010a).

The control of illicit-drug use and trafficking is difficult. It involves a variety of prevention, control, treatment, and law-enforcement strategies and the participation of local, national, and international government agencies. One approach in these endeavors, eradication of illicit crops, targets the beginning of the drug-supply chain by interfering with crop production in the fields. Croperadication measures include aerial application of herbicides, mechanical removal that uses tractors or other vehicles to harrow fields, and manual removal and destruction of plants.

TABLE 1-1 Major Cannabis-Cultivating and Cannabis-Producing Countries (2008, unless otherwise stated)

Country Cultivated Area. hectare Eradication Hanesiabie Area. hectare; Pieduraoc ciealc ton:
Herb Pesc
Afghanistan 10.000-24.000 (2009) 10.000-24.000 (2009) 1.500-3.500 (2009)
Bolivia 1.831
Canada 1.399-3.498 (2007)
Colombia 5.000 (2006) 4.000 (2006)
Mexico 18.562 hectares 12.000 21.500
Morocco 64.377 4.377 hectares 60.000 877
Netherlands 1.053.368 plants 323-766
Paraguay 6.000 1.838 hectares 16.500
South Africa 1.300 1,275 hectares 25
United States 7.6 million outdoor plants. 451.000 indoor plants 3,149-7,349

Source: UNODC 2010a. Reprinted with permission; copyright 2010. World Drug Report by United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Vienna. Austria.



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