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Index A A Brief History of Time, 21 Academic achievement measurement of, 5; see also Tests and testing reform and, 254 science, general, 4 Accreditation, institutions for, 222-223 Adey, P., 5-6 Administration and administrators, 209, 286-287 department heads, 300, 30~307 reform, 259-260, 271, 272, 274, 275, 315, 319, 329-330 state coordinators, 274 see also Principals Advanced placement, 71-78, 108, 159, 282, 283 Aging and aged persons, 287 AIDS, 4 All One System, 165 American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 45 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 118, 134, 222 American Society of Zoologists, 118 337 America's Textbook Fiasco: A Conspiracy of Good Intentions, 269 A Nation at Risk 117 Anderson, B. L., 272 Animism, 207 Asian students, 76 Assessment, see Evaluation of education Associations, see Professional associations and societies Australia, 12 B Back-to-Basics, see Minimal competence movement The Bible, 21, 26, 86 Biological Education in American Public Schools, 6 Biological Science, 156, 157, 160 Biological Sciences: An Ecological Approach, 49, 137 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 7~, 24, 51, 114, 118, 137, 142, 171, 203, 282, 286, 300, 305, 310 Biology Teachers Handbook 140-141 Black persons, 11, 23, 76, 9~94, 98-99 Bloom, Allan, 115 Bloom, Benjamin, 15 Boards of education, fragmentation, 80

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338 Bohr, Neils, 13 Botany, 108 Bradley Commission on History in the Schools, 115 Bronowski, Jacob, 145 C Cadenhead, K., 235 California, 216, 217, 268 California State University, 226 Candide, 21 Career development, 239 Carnegie Commission, 219 Carnegie Task Force on Teaching as a Profession, 201, 209, 234 Cell biology, 96, 107, 143-144, 157-159 Central Association of Science and Mathematics Teachers, 6 Certification, of teachers, 198-200, 202-203, 219-228, 23~233, 238, 240, 281, 295 Champagne, Audrey B., 185 Coalition of Essential Schools, 267, 273-276, 307 Cohen, R. A., 12 College Board Achievement Tests, 27, 71-73, 75-78 Colorado, 300 Commission on Science Education, 222 Community issues, 190 191, 318 Computers, 36, 171-172, 186-193, 318 animistic conceptions, 207 CD-ROM, 163 illustration design, 159-161 models and simulations, 172 Conceptual teaching, 115, 214, 234, 263, 321-322 Consider a Spherical Cow, 20 Consumer Price Index, 255-256 Continuing education (including inservice education), of teachem, 207-208, 215, 216, 286, 329 Cost of education, 239, 241, 254-255, 272, 274, 283-284, 295, 334 Cox, P. C, 272 Creationism, 50 Credentials, see Accreditation, institutions for; Certification, of teachers Criterion-referenced tests, 51 Cultural literacy, 3, 4, 12~123 Curricula, 3, 4, 10 INDEX advanced placement, 71, 72-73, 75-78, 282, 283 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 7-8, 24, 51, 114, 118, 137, 142, 171, 203, 282, 286, 300, 305, 310 and certification, 235, 240 computer-assisted, 186-193, 217, 319 content, secondary, 39-41, 45-48, 52, 65, 101-102, 113-116, 119-124, 131-141, 167-169, 248, 255 content, teacher education, 235-238, 303-306 development, 117-128, 167, 186-191, 209, 293, 298-307, 330-335 ecological perspective, 17-20, 49, 117-128, 137, 167-169, 173-175, 314-315 elective courses, 80 elementary, 186-191, 131-138, 216-217, 248 249, 251, 268, 310, 331 history, 6 - , 113-116, 119, 141-142, 295-296, 29~300 implementation, 23-24, 289-335 innovation and, 120, 121, 122, 135, 167, 303-306 inquiIy-based, 18~193, 217 institutional barriers, 243-288 medical revolution and, 3~36 models, 23~241, 268, 269-270, 324-335 multidisciplinary, 119, 121-124, 281, 310, 315-317, 322, 33~335 objectives, see Educational objectives problem-solving, 121, 140, 261, 263, 285 reform, 118, 245-335 required courses, 82 stability, 326 327 state-level actions, 209, 235, 256, 266-276, 291-292, 293 systems analysis and, 313-322 teacher education, 23~238, 303-306 teacher-proof, 209, 303, 305, 309 Curriculum Research and Development Group, 325, 330-335 D Demography, see Minority groups; Population factors; Sex differences de lbcqueville, Alexis, 115 Developmental Approaches in Science and Health, 332-333 Developmental factors, 3, 64, 166-167

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INDEX cognitive, 5, 12-14, 175, 204 ecological approach, 173 Diaz-Ortiz, E. M., 306 307 Diseases and disorders AIDS, 4 biological principles (DNA), 31, 32-35, 113, 114 cancer, 17, 31-35 Dissection, 133-134, 143 DNA, 49, 98 in disease, 31, 32-35 genome mapping, 35-36 Domain-referenced tests, 51 Ducharme, E. R., 299 Duclovorth, E., 284 E Ecological perspective, 3, 8, 67, 102, 296 curriculum, 17-20, 49, 117-128, 137, 167-169, 173-175, 314-315 global environment, 17-20, 146-147, 167 instructional procedures, 173-175, 314-315 laboratory instruction, 173-175 student knowledge, 96 teacher knowledge, 214, 215 Economic factom, 283-284 cost of education, 239, 241, 254-255, 272, 274, 283-284, 295, 334 employers' view of students, 37~2 employment of students, 11 teacher supply and demand, 202, 213 Educating Americans for the 21st Century, 45-48 Educational objectives, 4-5, 45-48, 52, 151-154, 253, 273 historical perspectives, 6-7 Montgomery County (Md.) Public Schools, 131-137 standardized tests, 5, 52, 258 teacher preparation, 201-202 Educational Research Information Center, 299 Educational Testing Service, 51, 73, 103 Education Commission of the States, 4, 38, 267, 268-270, 273-276 Ehrlich, Paul, 121, 126 Eisner, E., 321 Elective courses, 80 Elementary education 339 curriculum reform, 248-249, 251, 268, 310, 331 Target Science, 216-217 teacher certification, 221 telecommunication -assisted curriculum, 186-191 transition to secondary, 131-138 Elmore, R. F., 270 Employment employers' view, 37-42 salaries and wages, of teachers, 241, 284 student, 11 workload, of teachers, 279, 283-284 Energy transformation, 96-97, 106 107 Environmental issues and sciences, 5, 8, 17, 108, 121-123, 146-147 see also Ecological perspective Ethics, 124}121, 208 Ethnicity, see Minorities Evaluation of education, 45-46, 50-53 curricula, 331 instructional procedures, 62, 176 laboratories, 52, 73 state-level, 268 269 students, 55-70 studies, 4~52, 197 see also Tests and testing Evolution, 66, 102 curriculum content, 113, 114, 116, 127-128, 143-144 teacher knowledge and attitudes, 50 textbook treatment, 170 Examinations, see Tests and testing F Federal government, 256 Fernbank Museum of Natural History, 179-182 Finance, see Economic factors Florida, 240 Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST), 333-334 Foreign countries academic achievement, 4050, 197 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 7 competition with, 213, 292-293 curriculum development, 209, 293 ecological curriculum, 127 see also International actions and organizations, specific countries

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340 The Forgotten Half: Non-College Youth in Amenca, 166 G Gala theory, 144 Genetics, 97-98, 102, 107, 108, 143 see also DNA Genomes, 35-36 Geography, 27 Georgia, 179-183, 202, 207-208 Gifted students, 6, 114 Global warming, 17, 146, 147 Goals, see Educational objectives Gordon, Beverly, 239 Gould, S. J., 170 Gray's Anatomy, 160 Greenhouse effect, 17, 146, 147 Group learning, 216 H Handler, Evelyn E., 38 Hardin, Garrett, 117, 120 Harte, John, 114 ~ Hawaii, 325, 330-335 Hawking, Stephen, 21, 25 Hawley, W. D., 254 Health Biology, 160 High School Teachers Association of New York, 6 Hispanics, 11, 23, 76, 93-94, 99, 239 Historical perspectives, 10, 114 curriculum, 6-7, 113-116, 119, 141-142, 295-296, 299-300 literacy, 19-20 museums, 80, 178-183, 216 reform, 118, 246, 253, 267-270, 287 teacher education as public issue, 219-221 teaching of, 115 Hodgkinson, Harold, 165 Holmes Group, 199, 201, 209, 219, 234, 235, 238-241 Homework, 11, 141 Hord, S. H., 306-307 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 3 Huling-Austin, L., 225-226 Human factors, see Psychological factom; Social factors Hurd, Paul DeHart, 6, 119 Huxley, 1: H., 6, 144, 295 INDEX HyperCard, 172 I Illustrations, 31, 107, 108, 155-163 Industry Initiatives for Science and Mathematics Education-Los Angeles, 215 Inservice education, see Continuing education, of teachers Institutional factors, 3 centralization, 255-256, 269, 272 curricula, barriem, 243-288 expectations, 5-6 external, 252-259, 263-264, 308-309, 310, 315-316, 320-321 internal, 259-264 reform, 245-264, 271-272, 295 traditional approaches, 27~282 see also Professional associations and societies Instructional materials, 5, 25, 36, 149-193 see also Illustrations; Textbooks; Video techniques Instructional procedures, 10, 12~125, 133-134, 139-141, 149-193, 280 advanced placement, 71, 72-73, 75-78, 282, 283 analogy, 205 approaches, 30 32, 37-42, 115, 167-169, 173-176 conceptual, 115, 214, 234, 263, 321-322 daily schedule, 279, 303, 321-322 demonstrations, 13-14, 50, 108, 214 ecological approach, 173-175, 314-315 evaluation, 62 formal, 80 group learning, 216, 328 holistic methods, 174 homework, 11, 141 mentors, 1~15 models, 2~27, 175-176, 214, 319 pedagogy, 170, 203-208, 211, 215, 235, 270, 273, 280, 287, 288, 315, 320 project-based, 180193 reform, 259~263, 296 tracking, of students, 71-78, 108, 159, 255, 282, 283 see also Laboratories, classroom Interdisciplinary approach, see Multidisciplinary approach International actions and organizations

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INDEX curriculum content, 127 evaluations, 197 Kids Network, 188 International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, 4~50, 197 Interviews, test development, 60 61, 68 Item response theory, 91-92 J Jackson, Kenneth, 115 Japan, 292-293 Johns Hopkins University, 12 K Kids Network, 187-193 Koshland, D. E., 245 Kroc, Robed, 26 L Laboratories, classroom, 82, 107, 108, 133-134, 143, 145, 207, 251, 279, 282, 327-328 assessment, 52, 73 computed and, 172, 318 ecological approach, 173-175 Latent-trait theory, 91-92 Learning processes, 10-16, 166, 318-321 assessment of, 61-65 group, 216 memory and memorization, 59, 106, 141, 261, 280, 296 misconceptions, theoretical, 12-16, 63, 106-107, 185 pedagogy, 170, 203-208, 211, 215, 235, 270, 273, 280, 287, 288, 315, 320 research, 6~65, 185-186 social and psychological factors, 11-16, 62 theories, 206-207, 295 see also Time factom (learning) Licensing, see Certification, of teachers Life Science, 132-133 Literacy, 19-20 cultural, 3, 4, 12~123 mathematics, 19-21 scientific, see Scientific literacy visual, 161 Local actions 341 autonomy, 114, 127, 209, 256, 268, 269 community issues, 190 191, 318 Longitudinal Study of American Youth, 8~91 Los Angeles Educational Partnership, 216, 217 Lovelock, James, 144 M Man: A Course of Study, 248, 282 Management, see Administration and administrators Margulis, Lynn, 144 Maryland, 131-137 Massachusetts, 284 Mass media, 29~293 educational value, 24, 80 journalism education, 3~31 scientist stereotype, 11 student knowledge, reporting, 27, 284, 292-294 Mathematics formal instruction, 80 literacy, 19-20, 45 Mayer, W., 6, 8 McDonald's Corporation, 2~27 McLaughlin, M. W., 270-271 Medical science, 4, 17, 30-36, 113, 114 Memory and memorization, 59, 106, 141, 261, 280, 296 Men, see Sex differences Michigan, 268 Michigan Educational Assessment Program, 60 Michigan State University, 55-57, 59, 61-69 Minimal competence movement, 23, 51, 257, 258, 262, 267 Minority groups College Board advanced placement test, 76 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 93-95, 9~99 parents, 216-217 stereotyping, 11, 12, 13 students, 6, 11-13, 23, 9~95, 9~99 Target Science, 216-217 teachers, 199, 23~241 see also specific groups Mix, Alan, 144 Models

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342 computer, 172, 318 curriculum, 23~241, 268, 269-270, 320335 instructional, 26-27, 175-176, 214, 319 knowledge structure, 6~67, 167 McDonald's Corporation, 25-26 minority teachem as role models, 240-241 social-ecological, 310315 statistical analysis, 83~9 student attitudes, 81-89 teacher education, 199-200, 238-241 teaching, 319 see also Illustrations Modern Biology, 49, 13~133, 157, 159-160, 310 Morowitz, Harold, 8 Multidisciplinary approach, 3, 5, 6, 63 counteracting forces, 281 curricula, 119, 121-124, 281, 310, 315-317, 322, 330-335 global ecology, 19, 167 Multiple-choice tests, 51-52, 55-57, 106 Multivariate statistics, 85-89 College Board advanced placement test, 73, 75 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 90 Murray, F. B., 235 Museums, 80, 17~183, 216 N National Academy of Sciences, 7 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 90-99 student preparedness, 22-24, 27-29, 126-127, 128, 214 thinking skills, 49-50, 124 National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT), 100-109, 202, 203, 221-222, 223-224, 227, 230-233, 284 National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), 222-223, 234, 237 National Diffusion Network, 328 National Education Association, 6-7 National Geographic Society, 27, 187 National Institutes of Health, 247 National Research Council, 7 genome mapping, 35-36 test review, 51, 52 INDEX National Science Board, 126, 234 National Science Foundation, 45-48, 187, 328 reform, 247-248, 268, 286 science teacher institutes, 211-212, 308 Target Science, 216-217 National Science Teachem Association (NSTA), 10~109, 202, 203, 221-222, 223 224, 227, 230-233, 237 National testing programs NABT-NSTA, 10~109 teacher examinations, 197 United Kingdom, 80 see also National Assessment of Educational Progress Nation's Report Card, 266 Netherlands, 309 News & Hews, 101 News media, see Mass media New York, 6, 221 Nongovernmental organizations, 249-250, 292 see also Professional associations and societies Norm-referenced tests, 51, 108 o Objectives of education, see Educational objectives Open-ended questions, 91, 140-141, 284 Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 205 p Parental influences in minority groups, 216-217 on student course selection, 83, 84, 85-89, 90 on teachers, 210 Part-time employment, students and, 11 Pedagogy, 170, 203-208, 211, 215, 235, 270, 273, 280, 287, 288, 315, 320 Percy, Walker, 8 Personal theories, 12-16, 63, 106-107, 185, 207 Philosophy of education, 141-140 biological nature of man, 114 ethics, 120-121, 208 instructional procedures, 151-154 Policy issues administrative, 260, 271, 272

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INDEX public, 30, 120-121 reform of education, 254, 256, 257-259, 266-276 testing, 69 Political issues biological nature of man, 114 reform, 24, 206, 256-257, 259, 264, 291-292, 329 Population factom aging, 287 curriculum content, 121-122, 331 explosion, 17-18, 22 student diversity, 255 see also Minority groups; Sex differences Press, see Mass media Prewitt, Kenneth, 118 Principals, 209, 300, 301-302, 306, 317-318 Private sector, 215, 216, 217 educational leadership, 249-250, 292 employers' view of students, 37-42 Problem-solving, 121, 140, 214, 261, 263, 285, 318 Professional associations and societies accreditation and certification, 198, 221-224, 227 conferences, 284 evaluation, 48-50 historical perspectives, 6-7 national examination, 100-109 reform, 292 see also specific organizations Project 2061, 118, 134 Psychological factors change, 295, 317-318 and curriculum content, 122 developmental, 3, 5, 12-14, 64, 166, 173, 175, 204 minority-group teachers as role models, 240-241 motivation, 40, 79-90, 166,189-190, 216, 240-241 personal theories, misconceptions, 12-16, 63, 10~107, 185, 207 religious influences, 86 87, 90, 114, 115 student perceptions, 11-14, 62, 63, 167 Public opinion, 30 community issues, 190 191, 318 educational evaluation, 50 reform, 254, 255, 258-259, 271 343 Q Quality control, see Certification, of teachers; Evaluation of education; Reform; Standards; Textbooks R Racial factom, see Minority groups Reform administrator and administration, 259-260, 271, 272, 274, 275, 30~307 315, 319, 329-330 curriculum, 118, 245-335 ecological approach, 314-322 elementary education, 24~249, 251, 268, 310, 331 external facilitatom, 25~259, 263-264, 308 309, 310, 315, 316, 32~321 historical perspectives, 118, 246, 253, 267-270, 287 Holmes Group, 199, 201, 209, 219, 234, 235, 238-241 institutional factors, 245-264, 271-272, 295 instructional procedures, 259-263, 296 minimal competence movement, 23, 51, 257, 258, 262, 267 models, 320335 National Science Foundation, 247-248, 268, 286 policy issues, 254, 256, 257-259, 26~276 political issues, 24, 206, 256-257, 259, 264, 291-292, 329 principal's role, 300, 301-302, 306 processes, 29~311 professional associations, 292 public opinion, 254, 255, 25~259, 271 social factors, 252-253, 255, 25~259, 295, 313-314, 315-318, 321 standardized tests, 258 state policy issues, 26~276 systems analysis, 313-322 teacher involvement, 260-261, 263, 302, 303-305, 327-330 teacher preparation, 19~199, 201, 236, 23~241 Reliability studies, tests, 6~61, 69 Religious influences, 114 fundamentalism, 115 student choices, 86~7, 90 Required courses, 82

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344 Research, 215 Curriculum Research Development Group, 325, 330-335 Educational Research Information Center, 299 learning processes, 62-65, 185-186 teaching, 205, 217, 226 vs. teaching, 248 Research Corporation, 215 S Salaries and wages, of teachers, 241, 284 Scholastic Aptitude Test, 198 School boards, fragmentation, 80 School change, see Reform Schwab, J. J., 314 Science, 167-168 Science as a Way of Knowing (SAAWOK), 118 Science for All Americans, 134 The Science Report Card, 91 The Science Teacher Joumal, 101 Scientific American, 159 Scientific literacy, 3, 12-16, 45, 63, 79-90, 92, 106-107, 118-121, 14~147, 185, 207 Sex differences course selection, 83, 84, 86-87, 88 89 educational professionals, 209, 215, 238, 281, 286 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 93 95, 98 stereotyping, 11, 12, 281 students, 12, 83, 84, 86-87, 88~9, 9~95, 281 Shamos, Morris, 146 Shayer, M., 5-6 Shulman, L. S., 203, 204-205, 208, 211 Sizer, Ted, 273, 278-279, 307 Social factors, 3, 5, 38, 102, 108, 116-117, 145-147 community issues, 190 191, 318 curriculum content, 119, 121-124, 135, 153-154 local autonomy, 114, 127, 209, 256, 268, 269 reform, 252-253, 255, 258-259, 295, 313-314, 315-318, 321 stereotypes about high school, 30~302, 318-321 INDEX student perceptions and, 11-14, 62, 63, 80 see also Ecological perspective; Historical perspectives; Institutional factors; Literacy; Mass media; Minority groups; Political issues; Public opinion; Sex differences Special-interest groups, 257 Specialization, 205-206, 230, 281 Standardized tests, see Tests and testing Standards, 256 accreditation, 22~223 advanced programs, 108 defined, 219 national textbook, 114 see also Certification, of teachers Stanford Achievement Test, 60 State-level actions curriculum control, 209, 235, 256, 266 276, 291-292, 293, 327 Education Commission of the States, 4, 38, 267, 268 270, 273-276 reform policy, 266 276 teacher certification, 202-203, 224, 227, 235, 240, 281 textbooks, 269-270, 282 Statistical analysis, 83, 84~9 Steady Word Policy, Practice, and the Reform of American Education, 27~271 Students, 165-166 attitudes, 22, 79-90, 166 characteristics, 165-167 employers' view, 37~2 evaluation of, 55-70; see also Tests and testing expectations, of and for, 5-6, 40, 83-90, 267, 273, 274 ignorance, concealment, 58-61 interviews of, 60 61, 68 knowledge level, 55-58, 62-65 minonty-group, 6, 11-13, 23, 76, 93-95, 9~99 models, 81~9, 24~241 motivation, 40, 79-90, 166, 189-190, 216 non-college-bound, 166 parental influences on, 83, 84, 85 86, 90, 216-217 sex differences, 12, 83, 84, 86 87, 88~9, 93-95, 281

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INDEX social and psychological influences on, 22, 11-16, 62, 63-65, 80 talented, 6, 114 teacher-student ratio, 279 tracking, 71-78, 108, 159, 255, 282, 283 unprepared, 22, 55-58, 214, 246, 261, 266 see also Academic achievement; Advanced placement; Learning processes Syllabi, 23, 24, 74, 282; see also Curricula Systems analysis, 31~322 T Target Science, 216-217 Teacher certification, see Certification, of teachers Teacher Education Council of State Colleges and Universities, 199 Teacher preparation, 195-242 accreditation, institutional, 222-223 - continuing education, 207-208, 215, 216, 286, 329 curriculum, 234-238, 269, 303-306, 32~329 education, 197-200, 201-202, 213-217, 234 241, 247, 285, 295 FAST 333-334 minority-group recruitment, 238 241 models, 199-200, 23~241 science, 4 technological innovation and, 213-217, 298, 30~305 see also Certification, of teachers Teachers of advanced-placement courses, 72, 282, 283 attitudes, 169, 274, 287, 30~305, 308, 315 autonomy and accountability, 200210 beliefs about, 31~321 certification of, 198-200, 202-203, 219-228, 230-233, 235, 240, 281, 295 characteristics, 280 continuing education of, 207-208, 215, 216, 286 cumculum development, role in, 269, 327-330 daily schedules, 279, 303, 321-322 evaluation, 50 knowledge requirements, 114, 198, 203-208 345 minority groups, 199, 23~241 misassignment, 227 models, 319 parents, relation to, 210 pedagogy, 170, 203-208, 211, 215, 235, 270, 273, 280, 287, 288, 315, 320 personalization of, 273 placement of, 225 professional associations, 6-7, 10~109, 202, 203, 221-222, 223-224, 227, 231-233, 237 professional status, 208 212 qualifications, 201-212, 324 reform and, 26() 261, 263, 302, 303-305, 327-330 sex issues, 209, 215, 281 supply and demand, 202, 213 teacher-proof curricula, 209, 303, 305, 309 textbook evaluation, 169 workload, 279, 28~284 see also Instructional procedures Teaching, see Pedagogy Technical Education Research Centers, 186 187 Technological innovations, 5 computed, educational uses, 36, 159-161, 163, 171-172, 186-193 curriculum content, 120, 121, 122, 135, 167, 303-306 teacher preparation, 213-217, 298, 303 305 Telecommunication, 187-193, 217 TELEventure, 217 Television, 80 Tests and testing, 5, 24, 51-52, 57, 58, 258, 284 advanced-placement, 71-72, 7~78, 159 College Board Achievement Tests, 27, 71-72, 73-78 criterion-referenced tests, 51 development and analysis, 60 61, 65-69, 71-72, 73, 75, 10~101, 103, 105-109 distracters, 106 domain-referenced tests, 51 equating procedures, 75 international, 7, 4050 interviews and, 6~}61, 68 item-response theory, 91-92 minimal competence, 267 multiple-choice, 51-52, 55-57, 73, 75, 90

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346 NABT-NSTA exam, 100-109 national programs, 80, 10~109, 197; see also National Assessment of Educational Progress non-referenced tests, 51, 108 open-ended questions, 91, 140-141, 284 performance testing, 52 reform and, 258 reliability and validity, 6~61, 69, 101-103, 240 Scholastic Aptitude Test, 198 scoring, 59~0 Stanford Achievement Test, 60 teacher assessment, 198 teacher certification, 226, 227 Textbooks, 5, 10, 23-24, 31, 49, 116, 282 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 7~, 171, 203, 282 costs, 283 curriculum control, 127-128 fact overload, 140, 151-152 illustrations, 31, 197, 108, 155-163 local autonomy over, 114 mathematical literacy, 20 quality, 125, 13~133, 169-171, 251, 296 state control over, 269-270, 282 Textbooks, specific Biological Science, 156, 157, 160 Biological Sciences: An Ecological Approach, 49, 137 Biology Teachers Handbook 140-141 Consider a Spherical Cow, 20 Health Biology, 160 Life Science, 132-133 Modern Biology, 49, 132-133, 157, 159-160, 310 The World of Cells, 162 Thanatos Syndrome, 8 Theory, scientific Gala theory, 144 item-response theory, 91-92 learning, 20~207, 295 medical revolution, 30 36 pedagogy, 2(K207, 287, 288 personal misconceptions, 12-16, 63, 106 107, 185, 207 Time factors (learning), 15, 283, 303 daily schedules, 279, 303, 321-322 knowledge deterioration, 59, 141 Tinker, Bob, 190 Tobias, Sheila, 13 INDEX lam, Alan, 237 liacking (students), 255, 282 U United Kingdom, 12, 61, 80 University cooperation, 225, 247, 248, 274, 285, 295, 308, 316-317, 325, 330 335 University of California, 217 University of Chicago, 13, 15, 30 University of Hawaii, 330-335 University of Pittsburgh, 12 Urban areas, 216, 225, 278 V Validity studies, tests, 6~61, 101-103, 240 Van Rollick, W., 309 Video techniques, 31, 108, 163, 182 Virginia, 268 Visual aids, see Illustrations Voltaire, F., 21 W Wages and salaries, of teachers, 241, 284 Weis, I. R., 227 Weisskopf, Victor, 139-140 White persons, 93-94, 98~99 College Board advanced-placement test, 76 stereotyping, 11, 12 Women, see Sex differences Workload, 279, 283-284 17ze World of Cells, 162 y Yarroch, W. L., 60