data acquisition and tracking systems, indexes and models for measuring outcomes, and predictive models for decision support (Table 3.1).

The costs associated with data collection, analysis, and maintenance can be substantial. Costs will depend on the amount and accuracy of the data collected, how often they are collected, and the cost of the entire process, including data entry, storage, and staff time (NRC, 1998). Once data on a facility are created, it is necessary to update them throughout the facility’s life cycle. The types of data to be maintained, their level of detail, and their currency, integrity, and attributes will depend on the outcomes that they are related to and how important the outcomes are for strategic decision-making. The data on facilities or systems that are mission-critical, for example, might need to be updated more often than data on less strategic facilities.

Because of the costs, the committee believes that “no data before their time” should be an infrastructure-management tenet. Every system and data item should be directly related to decision-making at some level, and off-the-shelf decision-support systems should be fully integrated into decision-making processes. To the greatest extent possible, data should be collected in a uniform manner across federal agencies to provide greater uniformity and in turn support the development of governmentwide performance measures and the greater use of benchmarking for agency practices and investment strategies.

DATA ACQUISITION AND TRACKING SYSTEMS

Facilities asset management data should include at least inventory data (number, locations, types, and size of facilities) that are relatively static once collected, and attribute data or characteristics that change (for example, equipment and systems, condition, space utilization, tenants, maintenance history, value, and age) (NRC, 2004a). The systems described below are designed to assist facilities managers to gather and maintain accurate, relevant data about an individual building or structure throughout its life cycle. Some are traditional passive systems that rely primarily on manual entry of data and others collect data automatically in “real time.”

Traditional Passive Facilities Data-Acquisition Systems

Among the systems most commonly used by federal agencies for collection of data on portfolios of facilities are the following:

•   Computer-Aided Facility Management Systems. Computer-aided facility management (CAFM) systems have evolved over several decades and through several generations of technology. However, from the beginning, the primary focus of such systems has been space planning and management and asset management. Applications now include energy and lease management, real



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