more standardized practices, unambiguous procedures, definitions, and models. The committee believes that those activities would be most effective if under the auspices of the Office of Management and Budget.

Recommendation 6 (Findings 6 and 8). Federal agencies should avoid the collection of data that serve no immediate mission-related purpose. Agencies should use a “knowledge-based” approach to condition assessment. Outcome metrics and models should make maximum use of existing data. When new or unique data are required to support the development of an outcome measure or model, there should be a clearly defined benefit to offset the cost of collecting and maintaining them.

Recommendation 7 (Findings 8 and 9). Federal agencies should continue to participate in and take advantage of collaborative efforts to develop rapid and effective data-collection methods (such as the use of sensors and visual imaging devices), to develop data-exchange standards that allow interoperability of data and software systems, to develop the empirical information needed for robust prediction models, and to develop practices that will reduce the cost of data collection and eliminate human error and bias.

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