Outcomes of individual projects (project goals) are identified during the project planning and definition phase and can range from maintaining a heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system to operate at the manufacturer’s specified (or original) level of efficiency, or repairing or replacing a roof, to repairing or replacing groups of systems to achieve a higher level of efficiency (over that originally specified). Whether the project is being accomplished to conserve energy, to ensure mission capability or productivity, to lower operating costs, to improve the condition of military housing, or for any other reason, an individual project, if approached correctly, will have a defined set of outcomes. The outcomes of day-to-day activities (not on a project scale)—such as service calls, preventive maintenance (for example, lubrication and filter changes), and minor equipment replacements—are equally important because of the potential cumulative effect of neglecting them.

Identifying outcomes and the decision-making that leads to them occurs at two levels: portfolio-based (strategic) and project (tactical). Some of the outcomes identified (such as operating costs, energy use, and reliability) are more easily quantified at the portfolio level and others are more easily applied at the project level. Some (depending on the specific measure used for a given outcome) have meaning at only one of the two levels.

Regardless of how an agency goes about defining the outcomes to be achieved through its maintenance and repair program, appropriate measures are needed for planning and programming, budget development, and identifying the results of investments.

In Chapter 2, the committee identified an array of beneficial outcomes that can result from investments in maintenance and repair. All of them can be measured by using available data, technologies, and tools. Most of the measurements will be based on information that is developed after the fact (lagging measures). However, some outcomes, such as reliability and physical condition can be predicted (leading measures), that is, the outcomes of investments can be estimated before an investment is made, or before it is decided not to make the investment (the do-nothing case).

Governmentwide measures have been developed for operating costs, building condition (in the form of an index modeled on financial measures), energy use, water use, and space utilization. Deferred maintenance and repairs is also being reported, although the methods for estimating deferred maintenance and repairs vary. Government-wide measures to track greenhouse gas emissions are being developed.

In Chapter 3, the committee identified engineering-research-based indexes and models that can be used to measure the physical condition of buildings, building components, and some types of infrastructure. Risk assessment and consequence are embedded into the indexes. The indexes can also be used to predict the future physical condition of components and their remaining service lives. In

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