Data-intensive biology understanding of biological processes through models and algorithms of mathematics, statistics, and computer science using the vast volumes of data generated by new technologies (

Decision-support systems a specific class of computerized information system that supports business and organizational decision-making activities (Information Builders 2011).

Disease marker specific molecular signature of disease, physiological measurement, genotype structural or functional characteristic, metabolic changes, or other determinant that may simplify the diagnostic process, make diagnoses more accurate, distinguish different causes of disease, or enable physicians to make diagnoses before symptoms appear and to track disease progression (Medical Dictionary 2011)

Disease risk the probability that an individual who is initially disease-free will developed given disease over specified time or age interval (e.g. one year or lifetime) (Pigeot 2005).

Disease taxonomy the science of disease classification.

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) the polymer that encodes genetic material and therefore the structures of proteins and many animal traits.

EHR (Electronic Health Record) a subset of each CDO’s EMR, presently assumed to include summaries, such as ASTM’s Continuity of Care Record (CCR) and HL7’s Care Record Summary (CRS), and possibly information from pharmacy benefit management firms, reference labs and other organizations about the health status of patients in the community (Garets and Davis 2005).

EHR-derived phenotype phenotype based on Electronic Health Record (EHR).

Electronic medical records (EMS) computerized legal clinical records created in CDOs, such as hospitals and physician offices (Garets and Davis 2005).

Epigenetic relating to, being, or involving a modification in gene expression that is independent of the DNA sequence of a gene (e.g., epigenetic carcinogenesis, epigenetic inheritance) (Merriam-Webster 2007).

Epigenome the epigenome consists of chemical compounds that modify, or mark, the genome in a way that tells it what to do, where to do it, and when to do it. Different cells have different epigenetic marks. These epigenetic marks, which are not part of the DNA itself, can be passed on from cell to cell as cells divide, and from one generation to the next (NHGRI 2011).

Epiphenomenon an additional condition or symptom in the course of a disease, not necessarily connected with the disease (Houghton Mifflin Company 2007).

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