separately when constructing a persuasive campaign.” Thus, to measure outcomes, it is necessary to consider carefully which behavior one wants to change. In the case of obesity, it is much easier to change—and to measure changes in—food companies’ actions than people’s behaviors with regard to food. “We are kind of a long way from being able to link changes in exposure to changes in diet,” a presenter commented.

Rideout agreed, noting that “you have to be very precise about what you want to accomplish.” In her view, the suitable goal for a social marketing campaign is to raise awareness of risks and other information that can support behavioral changes. “It’s the first step,” she argued. Hornik responded that raising awareness should not be the only goal for a social marketing campaign. He suggested, that, although institutional and other communication interventions may need to occur together, “there’s a fair amount of evidence for behavioral effects of media campaigns.”

Is it then necessary to “invent a whole new system to measure both the exposure and the outcome”? another participant wondered. Hornik acknowledged that, for example, having a national cohort sample would make it easier to assess the effectiveness of strategies. He believes, however, that by combining the kinds of exposure data discussed by Rideout with data on changes such as those discussed by Ng, the approaches he described should make it possible to make some valuable claims.

REFERENCES

Chriqui, J. F., J. C. O’Connor, and F. J. Chaloupka. 2011. What gets measured, gets changed: Evaluating law and policy for maximum impact. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39(Suppl. 1):21-26.

Farquhar, J. W., S. P. Fortmann, J. A. Flora, C. B. Taylor, W. L. Haskell, P. T. Williams, N. Maccoby, and P. D. Wood. 1990. Effects of communitywide education on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The Stanford Five-City Project. Journal of the American Medical Association 264(3):359-365.

Farrelly, M. C., J. Nonnemaker, K. C. Davis, and A. Hussin. 2009. The influence of the national truth® campaign on smoking initiation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 36(5):379-384.

Gantz, W., N. Schwartz, J. R. Angelini, and V. Rideout. 2007. Food for thought: Television food advertising to children in the United States. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.

Hornik, R., L. Jacobsohn, R. Orwin, A. Piesse, and G. Kalton. 2008. Effects of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign on youths. American Journal of Public Health 98(12):2229-2236.

Huhman, M. E., L. D. Potter, J. C. Duke, D. R. Judkins, C. D. Heitzler, and F. L. Wong. 2007. Evaluation of a national physical activity intervention for children. VERB™ campaign, 2002-2004. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 32(1):38-43.



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