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Appendix C Responses from the 21st Century Truck Partnership to the Findings and Recommendations from the National Research Council Phase 1 Review 145

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st UPDATED 21 Century Truck Partnership Detailed Responses to NRC Report Findings 146 Update: November 10, 2010 = Finding/recommendation was highlighted in presentation of findings and is considered of greater importance by the committee. Finding Finding and Recommendation 21CTP Response (Updated November 10, 2010) Number and Subject Matter FINDING: The key benefit of the 21CTP is the coordination of research programs directed The Partnership concurs with the recommendation that it should continue, 1-1 toward the goal of reducing fuel usage and emissions while increasing heavy vehicle safety. and the members of the Partnership are committed to conducting the joint OVERALL Federal involvement is bringing stakeholders to the table and accelerating the pace of research efforts necessary to achieve the efficiency, emissions, and safety REPORT development. Very few U.S. manufacturers of trucks and buses or heavy-duty vehicle components goals set forth for such research. Independently of the NRC review, the have the R&D resources to develop new technologies individually. Thus, the 21CTP is giving Partnership has begun to re-examine the Partnership’s structure and some of those companies access to extraordinary expertise and equipment in federal laboratories, processes, and will take the NRC’s recommendations into consideration as in addition to seed funding that draws financial commitment from the companies to push forward part of this assessment. in new technology areas. The Partnership provides the United States with a forum in which the various agencies, in combination with industry and academia, can better coordinate their Furthermore, the Partnership has expanded its membership, and welcomes programs. Research funding of the 21CTP has been declining steadily in recent years, and this the addition of ArvinMeritor, Inc., and the increased participation by both decline is threatening the attainment of program goals. The current level is not in proportion to the industry and agency partners. importance of the goal of reducing fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles. RECOMMENDATION: The 21st Century Truck Partnership should be continued, but the future program should be revised and better balanced based on the recommendations of this report. In addition, more manufacturers should be recruited as participants, such as the major truck manufacturers and suppliers that are not in the Partnership. Research funding should be commensurate with well-formulated goals that are strategic to reducing fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles while improving safety. The 21CTP should also conduct an assessment of heavy-truck research activities overseas and determine if any changes in the future program would be appropriate based on foreign programs. FINDING: Many of the program goals were not met. Some of the goals were not plausible, from The Partnership is pleased that the NRC panel pointed out a number of 1-2 either an engineering or funding perspective. Other goals were not met because some of the successes within the work of the Partnership, including the work to OVERALL technologies proposed for meeting the goals were not applied. Notable failures of that kind are develop hybrid medium-duty and heavy-duty components and systems and REPORT discussed in Chapter 3, under the headings of “Goal of Thermal Efficiency of 55 Percent” and the work done to implement idle reduction technologies in the market. The “Goals Involving Fuels.” Partnership would like to highlight the accomplishments by the major RECOMMENDATION: A clearer goal setting strategy should be developed, and the goals should engine manufacturers in meeting stringent 2007 emissions regulations with be clearly stated in measurable engineering terms and reviewed periodically so as to be based on no degradation in fuel economy. The efforts of the Partnership played an the available funds. essential role in this accomplishment. The Partnership has completed several projects relevant to the program’s goals and recently launched, through the SuperTruck opportunity, a major effort largely in line with those goals. FINDING: The 21CTP is operated as a virtual network of agencies and government laboratories, The Partnership continues to examine its organization and management 2-1 with an unwieldy structure and budgetary process. Agency personnel meet frequently and industry structure as part of its ongoing self assessment efforts. The NRC panel’s MANAGEMENT partners meet periodically for limited sharing and communication. This has been the extent of the recommendations are a key guide in this assessment. coordination. Both government agencies and industry partners, per their remarks to the committee, have found the arrangement less than effective. The program was most productive when a full- Page 2

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st UPDATED 21 Century Truck Partnership Detailed Responses to NRC Report Findings Update: November 10, 2010 time person from industry was assigned to coordinate the cross-agency efforts. Oversight of the 21CTP is provided through an Executive Committee with representation from DOE, DOT (the U.S. Department of Transportation), EPA (the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), DOD, and the industry partners. Although that committee lacks authority to make cross- agency decisions and implement firm actions, it has been most effective when chaired by a full- time executive. This seemed to be an effective measure to ensure cooperation among agencies and address program challenges. RECOMMENDATION: A full-time, technically capable leader with consensus building skills should be appointed to coordinate the 21CTP program among industry partners and government agencies. This person could chair the Executive Committee and would be authorized to make recommendations to the committee on behalf of the entire program on stopping or redirecting existing research, on setting research priorities, and on future funding levels. FINDING: As confirmed in meetings with the DOE and other agencies there is no single source The recommendations of the NRC panel on management processes will be 2-2 of funds for the 21CTP, as perhaps intended by its creators. Instead, each of the four agencies has considered as part of the ongoing Partnership assessment. Indeed, as the MANAGEMENT its own stream of funds. DOE, DOT, DOD, and EPA budget and optimize funding based on their NRC points out, the four federal agencies have very different funding own priorities. In addition, they maintain funding to companies with multiyear cooperative structures in and of themselves. Their participation in the Partnership agreements. Thus, managing the 21CTP program and projects across multiple agencies has been allows for otherwise unlikely coordination of some research goals and challenging. The result has created difficulties in setting program priorities, especially in aligning achievements. The ability to directly align budgetary decisions across the budgets to programmatic requirements. A result has been difficulty in balancing between near- agencies, however desirable, may be outside the scope of this voluntarily and long-term projects and setting appropriate metrics and measures. In addition, variation in collaborative organization. funding levels year to year has diminished the impact of project achievements and results and reduced the probability of success and commercialization. The result of this complexity and lack of transparency is that some federal funds were spent by industry partners and by other federal agencies in ways that cannot be accounted for in the funding structure by fiscal year.” RECOMMENDATION: A portfolio management process that sets priorities and aligns budgets among the agencies and industrial partners is recommended. A proposed Table of Project Priorities (Figure 2-5) would provide an objective way of ranking research and development projects according to their expected outcomes. This could evolve into a budgeting process that ensures support for programs of merit beyond a single year. Pre-competitive, collaborative technology and concept development could receive proper focus for successful programs. FINDING: Although DOE has concluded that the 50 percent thermal efficiency goal has been DOE’s public- private partnerships are to facilitate technologies which 3-1 achieved, the experimental test results show that none of the industry partners achieved the goal of would demonstrate feasibility of stretch goals. Achieving 50 % engine ENGINES 50 percent thermal efficiency at 2010 emissions standards with a complete engine system. Each efficiency for heavy duty engines is an overarching national goal. The partner either failed to test a complete engine system on an engine dynamometer and used analysis industry must also meet prevailing emissions with the efficiency goals. to project results or failed to achieve 50 percent thermal efficiency at 2010 emissions standards The EPA 2010 near-zero emissions requirements were mandated in the with a complete system. Details of the analytical projections were proprietary and were not middle of the industry contracts. A goal of 50% engine efficiency was a provided to the committee. Moreover, the work that was accomplished was at the intrinsically high-risk goal, especially when concurrent with the near-zero emissions more efficient peak torque condition rather than at an engine speed and load representative of 65 achievement. mile per hour (mph) road load. RECOMMENDATION: Objective and consistent criteria should be used to assess the success or Looking forward, DOE’s SuperTruck program, launched in 2010, includes failure of achieving a key goal of the 21CTP such as the attainment of 50 percent thermal the demonstration of 50% thermal efficiency. In effect, it represents the efficiency. Detailed periodic technical reviews of progress against the program plan should be culmination of the modeling, design, analysis, subsystem development and conducted so that deficiencies can be identified early and corrective actions implemented to hardware testing completed by both publicly and privately funded efforts ensure success in accomplishing program goals. DOE should continue to work toward within the overall 21CTP umbrella over the past decade. DOE funding Page 3 147

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st UPDATED 21 Century Truck Partnership Detailed Responses to NRC Report Findings 148 Update: November 10, 2010 demonstrating 50 percent thermal efficiency at the peak efficiency condition as well as at a levels have limitations and this therefore represents a significant success. representative 65-mph road load engine speed and torque condition. DOE should also consider Industry observed that meeting 2002/2004 emissions were at a cost of reducing the number of industry contracts on specific engine projects that are funded so that only approximately 3-4 % more fuel use per truck. The partnership reiterates the engine systems most likely to meet the goal, based on system modeling and analytical that because of learning from these programs, the industry was able to projections, will be developed and tested experimentally. introduce 2007 emissions compliant heavy-duty products without a fuel economy penalty from the previous year’s products–a major achievement. DOE EERE is placing more emphasis now on demonstration and commercialization activities, and the panel’s recommendations are in line with this new philosophy. The SuperTruck projects involve demonstration strategies for 50 percent thermal efficiency goals and pursuit of real-world demonstration of 50 percent thermal efficiency engines in Class 8 trucks, building on previously-developed technologies and developing new technologies with partners. . Lessons learned from this effort will guide the requirements for a future solicitation involving 55 percent thermal efficiency engines in truck demonstrations. FINDING: The goal of achieving 50 percent thermal efficiency at 2010 emissions was not clearly Adherence to the full conditions of an SAE standard requires the level of 3-2 specified by the 21CTP. Each of the three industry partners used a different test procedure for technology maturity beyond that expected from pre-competitive R&D ENGINES measuring thermal efficiency (see Table 3-4). Likewise, none of the industry partners projects. The goal of these pre-competitive research projects was to demonstrated 2010 emissions using the required EPA test procedures with aged engine and develop stretch capabilities of engine and emissions systems. It was not aftertreatment systems. A goal of this importance should be specified by standard test procedures intended to reach the preproduction technology level (aged engine and so that the results are verifiable and compatible with industry standards. aftertreatment systems). RECOMMENDATION: Future work to achieve the goal of 50 percent thermal efficiency at 2010 emissions should be specified by industry standard test procedures. SAE J1349 Engine Power Test Code is the industry standard for net power ratings and should be specified for the thermal efficiency portion of this goal (SAE, 2004). Test results should clearly provide all of the engineering details required to interpret the results. FINDING: Some of the technical features used to approach the goal of 50 percent thermal The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 3-3 efficiency, as shown in Table 3-4, differed among the three industry partners and no explanation ENGINES or technical analysis was provided to justify the different approaches. Furthermore, the Each of the industry participants used their proprietary, internal analytical effectiveness of the individual features used on the demonstration engines could not be determined rigor, codes and modeling approaches to choose the technical path that due to the lack of analysis or system modeling. A validated system model should have been used showed the most promise of achieving the target of 50% thermal to compare test data with analytical projections to determine if each feature was performing as efficiency. expected. RECOMMENDATION: Prior to beginning future test phases of this program to achieve 50 In the SuperTruck solicitation, proposers were “encouraged to make percent thermal efficiency, system modeling should be used so that the preferred technical extensive use of modeling and simulation to make technology choices and approaches could be selected and test data could be compared with analytical projections to determine potential benefits.” determine if the expected results have been obtained. FINDING: Although DOE stated that the 2010 emissions standard was achieved in the Industry must ensure feasibility of meeting prevailing emission levels in 3-4 demonstrator engines attempting to achieve 50 percent thermal efficiency, only steady state any thermal efficiency improvement project. Emission compliance is a ENGINES emissions at one test condition were reported rather than test results from the EPA specified test hard requirement, while thermal efficiency goal is an R&D target. procedures for the 2010 emissions standard. In some cases, the emissions were estimated from engine-out emissions and assumed aftertreatment efficiency. RECOMMENDATION: Achieving compliance with 2010 emissions with a “one-off” prototype Page 4

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st UPDATED 21 Century Truck Partnership Detailed Responses to NRC Report Findings Update: November 10, 2010 engine designed to demonstrate 50 percent thermal efficiency may be too stringent a goal for the 21CTP. The emission objective levels should be revised to be the demonstration of emissions at a single point, where the emission level selected to be demonstrated should have the potential for meeting the 2010 emissions as specified by EPA test procedures. FINDING: Although industrial partners reported on their progress, the presentations were high The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 3-5 level summaries with critical engineering information omitted, thereby making the assessment of ENGINES accomplishments relative to goals difficult. A process developed by the Partnership to address Committee’s RECOMMENDATION: DOE should work to develop a review process that will allow future recommendation is to include site visits by the Committee members to the review committees to evaluate “sensitive” information so quantitative assessments of progress can Partnership member companies and agencies. This process is being be made. implemented as part of the 2010 NAS review of the Partnership. FINDING: Achieving the 21stCTP’s goal of 50 percent peak thermal efficiency is not expected to The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 3-6 result in the Partnership’s goal of 50 percent thermal efficiency for a typical Class 8 tractor-trailer ENGINES combination on a level road at a constant speed of 65 mph and a GVW of 80,000 lbs. Even if 50- The SuperTruck solicitation included “the development of a heavy-duty percent thermal efficiency were to be achieved at, or near, the peak torque condition, up to a 7 diesel engine capable of achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) percent improvement (3.4 percentage point improvement) task would still remain to achieve 50 on a dynamometer under a load representative of a level road at 65 mph.” percent thermal efficiency at the 65 mph road-load condition. RECOMMENDATION: The 21CTP should clearly define, in addition to the peak thermal Partnership closely monitors CRC ACES efforts. Results of this work, efficiency condition, the specific 65 mph road-load condition for demonstrating 50 percent together with other inputs, will contribute to the selection of test cycles for thermal efficiency. The committee suggests using one of the 13-mode steady state emission test demonstrating vehicle level goals in the SuperTruck projects. points for approximating the 65-mph road load condition. For typical engines, drivetrains, and vehicles, emission test point A50 (60 percent engine speed, 50 percent load) would be appropriate, although the most appropriate point (or multiple points, if necessary) should be determined for the specific engine, powertrain, and vehicle configuration under consideration, although this should be confirmed for each engine under consideration. The 21CTP should request each of the three current industry partners to test their experimental demonstration engines according to this recommendation. A recent CRC study (CRC ACES-1, July 2007) has proposed new cycles under development that may correlate better with actual in-use emissions and, possibly fuel usage, for heavy-duty diesel trucks). This study found that their in-use operation could be partitioned into the following four modes (with associated maximum speeds noted): creep ( 9 mph), transient (48 mph), cruise (59 mph) and high-speed cruise (65 mph). Each mode was highly transient and only the high-speed cruise mode reached 65 mph. The 21CTP should monitor this work and consider the possible future application of these cycles for assessing thermal efficiency improvements for HHDDEs. FINDING: DOE and the industry partners did not appear to address the potential commercial The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 3-7 viability of the technologies or the potential costs required to achieve cost effective solutions, as ENGINES illustrated in Table 3-10. The SuperTruck solicitation included the following requirement: “The RECOMMENDATION: DOE should request the industry partners to make an assessment of cost vehicle freight efficiency improvement must be achieved while meeting objectives required to achieve commercial viability. prevailing emission standards and Class 8 tractor-trailers vehicle safety and regulatory requirements. The systems developed shall be validated as cost effective via a business case analysis and will be reviewed for commercialization potential in later project phases as part of the phase gate review process.” FINDING: DOE is shifting prematurely to component research to support the 2013 stretch goal of Completion of the demonstration of the 50 percent thermal efficiency 3-8 55 percent thermal efficiency before completely demonstrating the earlier 2010 goal of 50 percent. would entail a full scale pre-production development of technologies ENGINES Page 5 149

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st UPDATED 21 Century Truck Partnership Detailed Responses to NRC Report Findings 150 Update: November 10, 2010 Importantly, after analyzing the results of the lengthy and extensive efforts carried out in the area expected to perform across the wide range of engine speeds and loads of Low Temperature Combustion LTC), it is considered unlikely that this technology will be a including 65 mph representative points. A project of such magnitude is successful enabler of the 55 percent stretch goal at any time in the near term, as it cannot be deemed financially prohibitive, outside DOE’s mandate of public–private adequately controlled over the full range of operating conditions of heavy-duty engines and has partnerships, and well beyond the pre-competitive R&D supported by not demonstrated inherent fuel-consumption advantages. Based on the open literature, the chances DOE. for success of LTC as a practical technology appear limited. RECOMMENDATION: DOE should complete the demonstration of the 50 percent thermal Heavy Truck Engine program budgets have been well below industry efficiency goal before embarking on the 55 percent goal. With respect to ongoing work on Low recommended levels for many years. The feasibility of reaching a 2013 Temperature Combustion, DOE should objectively analyze the potential viability of this stretch goal of 55% thermal efficiency demonstration goal may need to be combustion concept for heavy-duty engine applications, recognizing the many issues that would reconsidered, and the partnership has commenced the process to revise the need to be resolved to achieve commercial viability. program goals. The original 21CTP timeline will also be re-evaluated. A feasible, while stretch thermal efficiency demonstration, goal for the next set of projects may well be somewhere between 50% and 55%. Such stretch goal will encourage continuing introduction of high risk, high reward technologies into the program, while allowing each company to leverage its individual technical strengths and teaming capabilities. With respect to Low Temperature Combustion (LTC), DOE agrees that LTC may not be a sole enabler for the efficiency targets. Rather, DOE has stated that advanced combustion approaches will be a critical element, along with other engine and aftertreatment advances, of the path toward simultaneously higher efficiency and emission compliant heavy-duty engines (See 21CTP Roadmap). Engine manufacturers (world-wide) continue to strongly support the need for LTC research and pursue implementation. The advances that have already resulted from the combustion R&D have been an essential part of achieving 2004 and 2007 emission goals with minimal degradation of engine efficiency, and were an important part of reaching 2010 emission goals. FINDING: Information on the effects of fuel formulations on LTC operation was not presented to The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 3-9 the committee by the 21CTP. However, the Committee’s opinion is that any single diesel fuel ENGINES formulation is unlikely to optimize LTC over all modes of operation. The optimum fuel for light- Currently, such work cannot be prioritized since DOE’s petroleum based load operation will likely have different properties than the optimum fuel for heavy-load fuel budget has been zeroed out. operation. RECOMMENDATION: DOE should try to specifically confirm whether or not a single non- One example of the relevant work in this area is modeling of fuel kinetics specialty diesel fuel formulation will optimize LTC over all modes of operation and, modify its at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. priorities accordingly based on the data. FINDING: Even if LTC is successful at light loads, traditional diesel operation will likely be The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 3-10 necessary at cold start and higher loads. Due to the different emission issues at light loads and ENGINES heavy loads, it is very implausible that heavy-duty diesel engines will require no aftertreatment. As part of the SuperTruck projects, DOE will compare potential of mixed- RECOMMENDATION: DOE should undertake an analysis of a mixed-mode scenario to mode operation to that of the traditional aftertreatment-supported determine whether unburned HC and CO control in the LTC regime and DPF and NOx control in combustion. the traditional diesel combustion regime is not more complex and costly than aftertreatment for traditional diesel alone. FINDING: At the reduced budget levels for FY 2008 and beyond, the inclusion of five engine Recovery Act has afforded DOE an opportunity to fund three new cost- 3-11 Page 6

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st UPDATED 21 Century Truck Partnership Detailed Responses to NRC Report Findings Update: November 10, 2010 manufacturers as cost-sharing participants reduces the ability of funding projects of “critical shared vehicle and engine efficiency R&D projects – two teams under ENGINES mass,” which is not in keeping with the national interest. Recovery Act funding, and one team under regular program budget. RECOMMENDATION: DOE should fund only one or, possibly, two manufacturers during the next phase of the program so that only the most promising projects of a significant scope can be accomplished. FINDING: The thermoelectric conversion systems are at a very basic stage and seem to have While the majority of DOE’s thermoelectric work is done on light duty 3-12 been “lumped” into the 21CTP as a matter of budgetary convenience for more basic work going vehicles, we have seen continuing interest from the heavy-duty community ENGINES on primarily at the National Laboratories. in this technical area. Therefore, DOE will consider funding heavy-duty RECOMMENDATION: The thermoelectric conversion research should be removed from the thermoelectric work on a case-by-case basis. Currently, the only heavy 21CTP program until a more advanced level of technical maturity is attained. At the very least, a duty project is a work with Michigan State University and Cummins. technical analysis of the candidate waste energy recovery systems is needed to determine if future efforts on thermoelectric conversion systems within the framework of the 21CTP are justified. FINDING: It is unlikely that the goal of identifying and validating nonpetroleum fuel Much emphasis is being placed on resolving issues and remaining 3-13 formulations, optimized for use in advanced combustion engines, will be achieved by 2010. questions with utilization of biodiesel. With respect to non-conventional FUELS DOE’s nonpetroleum fuels effort is focused on resolving biodiesel operational issues and petroleum sources (e.g., oil sands and shale oil), the DOE Vehicle commercialization barriers, but DOE did not provide a timetable for successful resolution of these Technologies Program (wherein 21CTP resides) has no mission to sponsor efforts. DOE is also investigating oil sands and shale oil as other sources of petroleum fuel research in fuel production processes and has no plans to do so. The replacement. DOE did not present a plan for 5 percent replacement of petroleum fuels. The national labs under DOE funding are studying the effects of blended fuels Renewable Fuels Standard of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 is likely to have a role in accelerating utilizing oil sands to determine whether there could be impacts of non- the availability of non-petroleum fuels. conventional petroleum fuels on combustion and emissions from advanced RECOMMENDATION: DOE should continue to work with biodiesel developers and users to LTC strategies for high-efficiency engine combustion systems. assure compatibility when biodiesel is blended with conventional diesel fuel and problem-free use of biodiesel fuels in diesel engines. Successful deployment will require resolving operational issues and updating the biofuel specifications. Development of refining technology to make acceptable diesel from shale oil or tar sands is not high-risk research suitable for federal funding and should be left to the private sector. DOE should develop specific plans, including key actions and timetables, for 5 percent replacement of petroleum fuels. FINDING: DOE is exploring fuel properties of petroleum-based fuels that could have beneficial The DOE efforts to understand the effects of fuel properties on combustion 3-14 effects on engine efficiency and emissions, including aftertreatment. The committee is concerned support two principal objectives; first to assess the robustness of FUELS about the viability of low temperature combustion regimes used in this effort, and that the combustion strategies to fuel property variations found within modern applicability of the results of this project may be of limited value. The committee is also commercial fuels, and second to develop better understanding of fuel concerned that DOE’s work may define optimum fuel properties for an engine with a new effects to support longer term co-development of fuels and engines by combustion regime that are not consistent with the properties of conventional diesel fuel defined industry. There is a third potential benefit in defining improved in the ASTM specification for No. 2 diesel fuel. A potential implication of such a result is that a combustion rating criteria. The committee report referred to FACE for future engine with a new combustion regime may require a separate fuel, which would entail example. FACE is administered through CRC, chaired by an energy significant problems in the refining, distribution, storage, availability and cost of a special diesel company representative, and controlled by a mission statement that fuel for these engines. prohibits optimization objectives. The engine and energy industries have RECOMMENDATION: The committee recommends against assuming that specialized fuels will been participants in FACE and related projects for several years. The be commercially available for future engines with new combustion regimes. Due to the issues projects have been generally well-received in previously conducted peer concerning the viability of low temperature combustion regimes and commercially available reviews. specialized fuels, DOE should consider redirecting these efforts towards work with greater probability of contributing to the overall goals of the 21CTP. FINDING: DOE provided little insight into the scope and magnitude of the effort to address the Most of the DOE-sponsored efforts in this area have been focused on 3-15 goal of developing non-petroleum fuel formulations beyond biodiesel that could provide biodiesel as the committee noted. Otherwise, the emphasis has been on FUELS Page 7 151

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st UPDATED 21 Century Truck Partnership Detailed Responses to NRC Report Findings 152 Update: November 10, 2010 additional fuel economy improvements and near-zero emissions. DOE did not report any specific developing a fundamental understanding of a wide range of fuel property work plans, results, or timetables addressing this objective. effects on combustion and emission controls, encompassing the expected RECOMMENDATION: DOE should reaffirm that this goal should continue to be pursued. If the properties of non-petroleum fuels. Note the goal says “identify and goal is considered to strongly contribute to the overall 21CTP goals, DOE should develop specific validate” and not “develop.” One intent was to look for non-petrol fuel work plans and timetables for addressing this goal. property effects that would incentivize their use (eg, the apparent DPF regeneration advantage with biodiesel). Going forward, DOE and the partners will re-evaluate this objective and will need to bring plans in line with the EISA. FINDING: No specific goals have been outlined for 21CTP diesel engine aftertreatment systems Engine manufacturers’ selection of aftertreatment system components 3-16 but some goals have been set for eliminating aftertreatment. However, as discussed in this chapter, depends on trade-offs of many technical and commercial factors, including AFTER- the goal of eliminating aftertreatment does not appear to be achievable in the foreseeable future. combustion strategy, available fuel injection equipment, supplier TREATMENT RECOMMENDATION: Specific goals should be set for aftertreatment systems (improved preferences, etc. This leads to different approaches selected by different efficiency, lower fuel consumption, lower cost of substrates, lower cost catalyst, etc.). manufacturers, as happened with each of the recent emission regulations in 2004, 2007 and 2010. The Partnership prefers not to constrain manufacturers’ technical choices. Therefore, we have technical goals for the overall engine/aftertreatment system, rather than for its individual sub-systems. FINDING: The CLEERS, DCT, and CRADAs have contributed to many successful projects and The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 3-17 programs. AFTER- RECOMMENDATION: The 21 CTP should continue with the CLEERS, DCT and CRADA We appreciate the recognition and agree that these collaborative projects TREATMENT activities for aftertreatment systems. and working groups have been effective and productive. FINDING: The High Temperature Materials Laboratory is a valuable resource, providing The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 3-18 specialized instrumentation and professional expertise in support of materials research. 21CTP HTML projects have utilized the laboratory extensively; it has provided support to 35 different 21CTP In 2007 the HTML discussed a five-year plan with the director of the projects since 2001. Whereas few advanced materials were actually utilized in the 21CTP project Vehicle Technologies Program that addresses the needs of the HTML and to demonstrate the major 50 percent thermal efficiency goal, it is expected to contribute to the the HTML User Programs to effectively support the missions of the 21CTP in valuable ways in the future. Vehicle Technologies Program. Specifically the plan included RECOMMENDATION: The DOE should continue to provide 21CTP projects access to the recommendations for investments in instrumentation and human resources HTML. Although HTML’s budget is not explicitly linked to the 21CTP, DOE should make every that are both related and relevant to the goals of the Vehicle Technology effort to maintain a stable budget for the HTML, in order to keep it at the “state of the art” level, Program. and able to respond to the needs of the broader research community. FINDING: ACES is a cooperative, multi-party effort to characterize the emissions and assess the The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 3-19 safety and potential health effects of new, advanced engine systems, aftertreatment, fuels and HEALTH lubricants. It is an animal study using rats and not focusing on the direct effects on humans. DOE We appreciate the endorsement of the ACES project and agree with the EFFECTS is providing the major funding for this program. NRC panel on its value. RECOMMENDATION: The committee endorses the DOE funding of this study and recommends that this continue for the remainder of the study until results become available in the 2012-2013 time period. FINDING: Challenges with lithium-ion anode/cathode materials and chemical stability under The Partnership agrees that more R&D in this area - especially in the area 4-1 high power conditions will likely preclude achieving the 15-year durability targets by 2012. of Power Density and Battery Life, is needed. Indeed, subsequent to the HYBRIDS RECOMMENDATION: Much closer interaction between military and commercial suppliers is NRC’s first report and as part of the ARRA 2009, battery research, recommended to identify the highest-priority areas for further research in an attempt to expedite development and production capacity have greatly increased through the development of commercially viable battery or battery/ultracapacitor systems that can DOE. The Partnership would be happy to provide additional Page 8

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st UPDATED 21 Century Truck Partnership Detailed Responses to NRC Report Findings Update: November 10, 2010 accomplish the unique high-power needs of heavy-duty vehicles. documentation with regard to these technologies. FINDING: There are significant differences associated with the use of battery energy storage The Partnership concurs with this finding. 4-2 systems in heavy-duty vs. light-duty applications. HYBRIDS RECOMMENDATION: Due to these differences and the much lower production volumes for Current research focused on Light-duty applications may not necessarily heavy-duty applications, it is appropriate to continue funding and conduct sufficient research and apply to Heavy-duty applications. A crosscut light-duty / heavy-duty development to demonstrate prototypical success in heavy duty applications, or identify areas for meeting on energy storage is planned for January 2011. continued research. FINDING: The information exchange between DOD, DOT, DOE appears to be rather casual due The Partnership works within the constraints of current funding 4-3 to completely separate funding mechanisms, priorities, and testing methods. mechanisms, which differ among the member agencies. These limitations HYBRIDS RECOMMENDATION: Jointly-funded programs that prioritize research, build upon the success make it difficult to devise a jointly-funded R&D program. We believe that of each agency’s programs and thereby necessitate technology transfer between the partners our role in fostering communication among agencies goes a long way would significantly improve the technology transfer and reduce the chance for “reinventing the toward improving technology transfer and learning from each other’s wheel,” or duplicating other’s mistakes. mistakes and successes. FINDING: The metrics used for comparing battery technologies differ from manufacturer-to- The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 4-4 manufacturer, agency-to-agency, and even for different evaluations within a given agency. HYBRIDS Terminologies also vary in definition. Many existing standards for measuring battery parameters It is our intent to increase activities in Codes and Standards for hybrid are technology specific, making accurate comparison of different technologies difficult or components including battery storage. impossible. RECOMMENDATION: Metrics should be standardized or modified to enable more accurate comparisons across different battery technologies for transportation use. Universal terminologies should be defined, published, and recommended for adoption by the various battery manufacturers. FINDING: Very little data are published about batteries when used in conjunction with The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 4-5 ultracapacitors for heavy-duty HEV applications in this program. Recent developments show great HYBRIDS promise with this technology, especially for heavy-duty applications requiring high power output Additional power density needs associated with heavy-duty applications for acceleration and fast charging for braking energy recovery. could benefit from this technology. RECOMMENDATION: Expanded research effort and associated funding focus should be focused on ultracapacitors or supercapacitors as “hybrid” storage systems, in combination with batteries. FINDING: R&D on heavy-duty hybrid trucks and buses has demonstrated significant progress, The Partnership agrees with this finding. The SuperTruck demonstration 4-6 achieving 35 to 47 percent fuel economy improvements in hybrid-electric delivery vans and urban projects may be an excellent venue to develop and commercialize hybrid HYBRIDS buses, with specialized applications and the hydraulic hybrid delivery van in the 50 to 70 percent technologies. Hydraulic hybrids could also use additional research range (60 percent is the present 21CTP target). Commercial success has already been achieved funding to achieve their maximum system level performance. with hybrid urban buses, albeit with major governmental subsidies. Despite the promising progress, significant hurdles still remain to achieving the fuel economy improvement targets for a Furthermore, the Partnership is in the process of bringing together the broader range of heavy-duty hybrid vehicle (HHV) applications, reducing the cost, and improving hybrid electric vehicle energy storage experts from light vehicle and HHV reliability sufficiently to achieve broader commercial success. In addition, there are medium & heavy vehicle industries for a crosscut discussion to identify opportunities for achieving significant system-level improvements that would make HHVs more possible research areas of mutual interest. A meeting is planned for attractive to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and users, such as the merging of hybrid October 2010. propulsion and idle reduction features, including start-stop operation and creeping under all- electric power. RECOMMENDATION: Development and demonstration of heavy-duty hybrid truck technology should be continued as part of the 21CTP program in order to reduce barriers to Page 9 153

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st UPDATED 21 Century Truck Partnership Detailed Responses to NRC Report Findings 154 Update: November 10, 2010 commercialization. These development projects should include efforts to capitalize on opportunities for system-level improvements made possible by HHV technology in order to extract the maximum possible value from any new hybridized propulsion equipment that is installed in future trucks and buses. FINDING: Progress in the development of HHV technology under the 21CTP program has been The Partnership concurs. The Partnership is exploring strategic alliances 4-7 hindered by the decision to focus on component-level technology rather than on systems. with HTUF as part of the ongoing assessment of its operations. DOE VTP HYBRIDS Successful development and commercialization of HHV technology requires coordinated, director Pat Davis will be presenting at the HTUF event in late September. customized development of the combustion engine, electrical/hydraulic drive equipment, This will be an opportunity for engaging HHV component suppliers and mechanical powertrain, and controls, as components of an integrated system, in order to realize its hybrid truck users. full potential. In addition, the coordination of HHV project activities among the 21CTP’s federal partners (DOD, EPA, and DOE) has not matched the level achieved in other 21CTP programs DOE has met for a series of meetings with CALSTART to discuss and such as nighttime idle reduction, making it more difficult to achieve ambitious HHV technology consider a number of areas where there is opportunity for cooperation. targets. Likewise, DOE has met with representatives from the U.S. Army to RECOMMENDATION: Coordination of all 21CTP heavy-duty hybrid truck development and consider cooperative research opportunities. A memorandum of demonstration activities should be strengthened across components, programs, and agencies to understanding between the Department of Defense and the DOE was maximize the system benefits of this technology and to accelerate its successful deployment in established. commercial trucks and buses. In addition to improved cross-agency coordination, HHV stakeholder-based organizations including the Validation Working Group and the Hybrid Truck As was presented September 8, the U.S. EPA has a hydraulic hybrid Users Forum should be engaged more aggressively to assist in identifying and overcoming key vehicle demonstration effort that complements 21CTP hybrid efforts. hurdles to the successful commercialization of HHV technology. Finally, DOT has been funding the purchase of heavy duty hybrid electric vehicles. FINDING: Emissions of heavy-duty trucks are currently measured and certified by EPA for each The Partnership agrees with this finding. In fact, we believe that 21CTP, 4-8 engine type rather than for any truck as a complete unit. Since current procedures do not allow EMA, TMA and SAE organizations should be utilized in an advisory HYBRIDS either the fuel economy or emissions of complete hybrid propulsion systems to be certified, capacity during the development of these new regulations. The neither the fuel economy or emissions gains of hybrid trucks are recognized by this procedure. Partnership is exploring the possibility of developing strategic alliances This approach serves as a deterrent to commercialization of HHV technology since there is at with several of these organizations. present no practical way for truck purchasers to derive any direct tax credits for buying hybrid trucks as called for in the U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005, which expires in 2009. Developing the It is appropriate for EPA to maintain responsibility for developing these necessary test procedures to address this shortcoming is expected to be a complex and lengthy types of procedures based on the Agency's past experience with fuel process, and EPA has not been able to devote sufficient resources to resolve this problem in a economy and emission measurement protocols. EPA agrees that DOE timely manner. involvement in this process would be beneficial and could help accelerate RECOMMENDATION: Since tax credits for hybrid trucks established in the Energy Policy Act development of procedures more suitable than the interim procedures of 2005 expire at the end of 2009, DOE should work with EPA and stakeholders to accelerate the currently specified by the IRS for obtaining tax credit certification. development of fuel economy and emissions certification procedures for heavy-duty hybrid vehicles so that the benefits of hybridization can be rewarded to encourage commercial adoption Under the SmartWay program, the EPA is working on drive cycle development for different vocations. DOE participated in this effort through the workshops held by EPA. FINDING: Recent statements by representatives of some heavy-duty truck OEMs have reported The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 4-9 that there are opportunities for fuel economy improvements between 5 and 7 percent in hybridized HYBRIDS versions of Class 8 long-haul trucks, yielding annual fuel cost savings exceeding $9,000 per year. Two of the three SuperTruck projects include hybridization as part of their This result runs counter to generally-held opinions about the low potential of hybrid versions of work. This effort will include a combination of analytical simulation and Page 10

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st UPDATED 21 Century Truck Partnership Detailed Responses to NRC Report Findings Update: November 10, 2010 Class 8 long-haul trucks for substantial fuel savings, and no documented study results have been experimental prototype work. made available to the committee to firmly substantiate the recent claims. RECOMMENDATION: The committee recommends that the potential benefits of hybrid Class 8 In appreciation of the growing importance of hybrid work to the long-haul trucks be evaluated as part of the 21CTP program by conducting a documented study Partnership, we have accepted a request of ArvinMeritor (one of the using a combination of analytical simulation and experimental data. If the results of the study leading players in hybrid technology for heavy-duty applications) to join confirm the recent claims of substantial fuel economy opportunities in hybrid long-haul trucks, the the Partnership as a member. 21CTP program management is encouraged to find ways to contribute directly to the accelerated development of the necessary hybrid technology and its successful demonstration in prototype vehicles. FINDING: The More Electric Truck program demonstrated an integrated system to reduce idling DOE is exploring the cost and benefits of continuing R&D in this area 5-1 emissions and fuel consumption. The test program showed significant progress toward achieving compared to the potential for efficiency improvements by other heavy PARASITICS the objectives of both Goal 2 in Chapter 5 (“Develop and demonstrate technologies that reduce truck technologies. essential auxiliary loads by 50 percent, from the current 20 hp to 10 hp, for class 8 tractor-trailers) and Goal 6 in Chapter 6 (“Produce by 2012 a truck with a fully-integrated idling-reduction system DOE funded an effort through Oak Ridge National Laboratory to to reduce component duplication, weight, and cost.”). It did so by demonstrating 1 to 2 percent characterize Class 8 duty cycles by recording over 100 parameters from six estimated reduction in fuel use including significant truck idling reductions. According to DOE, tractors and ten trailers for a 15-month period. DOE and DOT jointly this translates into an overall fuel savings for the U.S. fleet of 710 to 824 million gallons of diesel funded a similar Class 7 duty cycle assessment. fuel (about $2 billion per year at 2.75 per gallon). RECOMMENDATION: Given the potential of this program to save fuel, the committee DOT led a cooperative effort to establish an idle reduction equipment recommends that the 21CTP continue the R&D of the identified system components that will weight exemption. provide additional improvements in idle reduction and parasitic losses related to engine components that are more efficient and provide better control of energy use. The program should DOE also funded a project to develop a factory integrated and installed focus also on the cost-effectiveness of the technologies. idle reduction auxiliary power unit to efficiently prevent unnecessary truck idling. FINDING: The 21CTP lightweight materials research was terminated as a result of the 2007 Thanks to the availability of Recovery Act funding to support two 5-2 budget reduction. SuperTruck teams, DOE program budget is now available to support PARASITICS RECOMMENDATION: The committee agrees with the decision to terminate lightweight continuation of lightweighting efforts in heavy-duty area. materials research in order to provide as much budget resource as possible to continue research in engine efficiency and emissions reduction technologies, as improvements in engine efficiency offer greater potential for overall gains in vehicle fuel efficiency. FINDING: Prior to termination of the lightweight materials program, several lightweight material The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 5-3 projects demonstrated weight reduction potential for truck components. However, the program did PARASITICS not achieve the longer term objective (planned for 2012) of demonstrating a 5,000-pound weight Integration of new materials into commercial offerings is the responsibility reduction for a complete class 8 tractor trailer combination. of the industrial partners. RECOMMENDATION: Due to the termination of the project in 2007, it will be the responsibility of truck manufacturers to take the next steps of system integration, product validation, and ultimately production of a lightweight truck. Although an interim step of system integration at the pre-production stage would have been useful, it is not inappropriate that the OEMs now assume responsibility for continuation of the work, as the next steps will require development of a business case which comprehends material costs and the costs of modifying existing manufacturing systems to accommodate the introduction of advanced materials. FINDING: The committee noted that the above list of research areas was extensive and The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 5-4 comprehensive. However, the list appeared to be significantly more ambitious than the budget for PARASITICS Page 11 155

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st UPDATED 21 Century Truck Partnership Detailed Responses to NRC Report Findings 156 Update: November 10, 2010 the 21st CTP could fund. The committee assumed that this was the case since no projects or This technical area has been renamed “Power Demands” in the current list results from any of the above research areas were provided. of Partnership goals to reflect broader range of the relevant technologies RECOMMENDATION: In addition to identifying a list of research areas that could provide and stronger emphasis on those technologies that are capable of reducing solutions to thermal management challenges, DOE should develop, fund and implement plans for engine power requirements and may lead to engine downsizing. pursuing the key areas that will lead to the successful accomplishment of the specific 21st CTP Goal 4A. DOE's first step should be to assess the candidate technology, or technologies, that have the highest potential for meeting the requirements of Goal 4A. This goal and its status were briefly discussed with the committee and the following information was provided: “Track and laboratory tests met or exceeded goals, validation test is underway.”Unfortunately, a description of the track and laboratory tests that had been performed, the engineering details and the results from these tests, or a description and timetable for the validation test reported to be under way were not described for the committee. FINDING: Based on the above observations, the committee was not able to accurately assess the The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 5-5 progress on this goal or the expectation of whether this goal can be successfully achieved. PARASITICS RECOMMENDATION: DOE should provide periodic status reports on the 21CTP goals that We will examine methods for providing status reporting for projects as include the technical status vs. the program plan, funding vs. budget, and the expected future part of its overall assessment of the Partnership’s processes and methods accomplishments vs. the program plan. (as outlined in the Management responses above). FINDING: The achievement of present program targets would require the involvement of a wide The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 5-6 range of new program participants and the sharing of responsibilities among new program PARASITICS partners, inherently incorporating higher technical and durability risks than the present The SuperTruck projects for the first time integrate vehicle, engine, and approaches. Truck manufacturers are assemblers of components specified by the truck buyer, and component goals into an integrated set of objectives. The SuperTruck cooperative design and development relationships may not exist between suppliers. teams bring together manufacturers and suppliers for coordinated systems RECOMMENDATION: DOE should determine if the above approach for achieving Goal 4A is R&D. feasible within the scope of the 21CTP and containable within the available budget. DOE should take a strong leadership role with appropriate funds to bring manufacturers and suppliers together for systems research and development for Goal 4A and Goal 3. FINDING: The committee noted that the DOE list of research topics in friction, wear and The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 5-7 lubrication was extensive and comprehensive. However, the list appeared to be significantly more PARASITICS ambitious than the budget for the 21CTP could fund. The committee assumes that this was the The SuperTruck projects will continue the research in the areas of friction, case since no projects or results from any of the above research areas were provided. wear and lubrication. This work will include efforts in reducing engine RECOMMENDATION: In addition to identifying a list of topics addressing friction, wear, and and transmission losses. lubrication technologies, DOE should develop, fund and implement plans for pursuing key areas that will lead to the successful accomplishment of the specific 21CTP Goal 4B. DOE's first step should be to conduct detailed friction testing of a range of heavy-duty diesel engines, transmissions and final drives to determine those with best-in-class friction. With respect to engines, previous industry light- and heavy-duty engine friction reduction investigations that included lightweight-low friction piston and piston ring designs, low friction coatings and surface finishes, reduced engine bearing sizes and other design modifications should be reviewed to determine opportunities for reducing engine friction below best-in-class levels. From this assessment, other candidate technologies with the highest potential for meeting the requirements of the engine portion of Goal 4B should be identified. Likewise, the efficiencies of transmissions and final drives on heavy-duty trucks should be measured and compared with the efficiencies of best-in-class light-duty vehicles, normalized for load differences, thereby providing insight for friction reductions in heavy-duty truck transmissions and final drives. From this assessment, other Page 12

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st UPDATED 21 Century Truck Partnership Detailed Responses to NRC Report Findings Update: November 10, 2010 candidate technologies with the highest potential for meeting the requirements of the driveline portion of Goal 4B should be identified. FINDING: In contrast to the report by DOE to the committee, the analysis of the basis of this goal The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 5-8 by the committee indicates that it is very unlikely that this goal can be achieved within the scope PARASITICS of the 21CTP. The achievement of the goal’s projected fuel savings appears to be very unlikely The SuperTruck teams will conduct three independent assessments of the with accompanying high risks relative to component life. Parasitics reduction goal. Based on the results of this work, the RECOMMENDATION: DOE should reassess the basis of this goal and determine if 50 percent partnership goal will be reassessed. reductions in powertrain and drivetrain losses are technically feasible. Based on this assessment of technical feasibility, DOE should determine if this goal should be pursued based on its potential fuel savings vs. other competing programs within the 21CTP. If DOE determines that this goal should be pursued, they should then develop specific program plans, timing and funding. FINDING: There is a precedent for government to establish performance measures for tires as The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 5-9 illustrated by the Uniform Tire Quality Grading System (UTQGS) adopted by NHTSA in 1980 PARASITICS [Part 575.104 of the Consumer Information Regulations]. The UTGS applies to passenger car tires EPA’s SmartWay Transport Partnership tested and publicly reported the and requires manufacturers to grade new tires for tread wear, wet traction and temperature fuel savings impact of low rolling resistance truck tires. Tire impact on resistance. Tread wear is graded on a numerical scale, while traction and temperature resistance fuel consumption is also part of the Agency’s criteria to designate the most are graded on an alphabetic scale. There is no current requirement for grading rolling resistance, fuel-efficient heavy-duty trucks and trailers as “SmartWay.” EPA or for grading truck tires. supports the continued assessment of methods to assess tire rolling RECOMMENDATION: DOE, EPA, and DOT should arrange to gather and report information on resistance and its impact on heavy truck fuel efficiency. DOE recently the influence of individual truck tires on vehicle fuel consumption; to convey such tire conducted similar evaluations of the use of new generation wide base information to both buyers and sellers; and to periodically reassess the effectiveness of this single tires and is sharing this information with the 21CT Partnership. consumer information and the methods used for communicating it. FINDING: Idle reduction is one of the most effective ways to reduce pollutant emissions The Partnership concurs with the NRC panel’s recommendation on 6-1 (especially locally) and improve fuel consumption. As a result of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, continued R&D efforts for idle reduction technologies. IDLE the authority for this effort now rests with EPA and DOT. Several important lines of research are REDUCTION carried on in the 21CTP. In addition, the EPA SmartWay Transport Partnership voluntary program It should be noted that EPA, through its SmartWay Transport Partnership, is effective at promoting the use of electrified parking spaces. The 21CTP, in cooperation with does not promote, recommend, or endorse idle reduction technologies. several major shippers, has demonstrated a number of cost-effective technologies (such as fuel- Rather, the SmartWay program demonstrates and deploys idle reduction fired cab heaters and coolers) that are being used by existing fleets. (One fleet is installing more technologies through its grant authority under the Clean Air Act, Section than 6,000 heaters, and another is installing more than 7,000.) One trucking company reported that 103, and the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 791. The SmartWay diesel-fired heaters provided 2.4 percent fuel savings and a payback in less than 2 years at $2.40 program has demonstrated and deployed both mobile and stationary idle per gallon. reduction technologies. RECOMMENDATION: The 21CTP should continue to support R&D for the technologies that As discussed in the 5-1 response, DOE also funded a project to develop a reduce idle time and address the remaining technical challenges (including California emission factory integrated and installed idle reduction auxiliary power unit to requirements, completely integrated APU/HVAC (auxiliary power unit/heating, ventilation, and efficiently prevent unnecessary truck idling. air-conditioning) systems, and creep devices). FINDING: An effective government-industry cooperative program has been established to The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 6-2 examine idle-reduction technologies, which have been successfully employed for nighttime truck IDLE operation. Both nighttime and daytime idling contribute to avoidable non-productive REDUCTION RECOMMENDATION: The success of the nighttime anti-idling measure and deployment should use of fuel. Truck drivers will idle for a variety of reasons, but the primary be the basis for expanding to technologies that can be applied for daytime operation, which will reason for long duration idling is to rest comfortably during the driver’s then lead to greater fuel savings than nighttime operation. federally mandated rest period. Page 13 157

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st UPDATED 21 Century Truck Partnership Detailed Responses to NRC Report Findings 158 Update: November 10, 2010 Long duration idling (more than 6 hours) occurs during the driver’s rest period. Short duration idling occurs while truck drivers are waiting to load or off-load cargo. Cargo loading or unloading wait times can last up to 3 hours. Technologies that are appropriate for long duration idling might not be cost-effective for short duration idling. For example, a $7,000-$9,000 idle reduction device that supplies heat and air conditioning will provide a much faster payback for a truck operator who idles 8-10 hours per day, than for one who idles only 3 hours per day. Additionally, conventional idle reduction devices (e.g., auxiliary power units) designed to reduce long duration idling supply heat or air conditioning to the sleeper compartment. However, many truck drivers whose operations involve short duration idling do not have sleeper compartments that justify the need for such technologies. Reducing short-duration idling can be achieved through operational strategies, rather than necessarily with technologies. For example, improved logistics can reduce idling times by scheduling loading/unloading during non-peak hours, or contacting the truck driver when the loading dock is available. Instead of waiting in a line idling, the truck driver can find a more convenient location and wait without the need to idle. FINDING: DOE has built an effective outreach instrument in its monthly publication, “The The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 6-3 National Idling Reduction News.” This publication and education through conferences and other IDLE agencies such as the EPA provides stakeholders with significant information and guidelines for The Partnership appreciates the acknowledgement of its success in REDUCTION idle reduction. education and outreach related to idling reduction, and agrees that this RECOMMENDATION: DOE should continue its current successful education and outreach work has been useful to the community. program as currently operated. FINDING: Progress on the incentive part of this goal has been excellent as evidenced by the EPA has no legal authority to promulgate anti-idling laws, or any time or 6-4 SmartWay Transport Partnership between EPA and industry. The patchwork of anti-idling behavioral limits on truck drivers. EPA’s legal authority rests with IDLE regulations nationally is an impediment to broader use of anti-idling measures. promulgating emission standards for vehicles and engines. The idle REDUCTION RECOMMENDATION: EPA should renew its efforts to promulgate national anti-idling reduction efforts of the EPA SmartWay Transport Partnership, which regulations, and DOE should review whether additional R&D is needed to implement those resulted in a model for a state or local idling law, are part of a larger regulations. educational campaign for states and local governments. The purpose of this campaign is to inform the public about the need for more consistent and practical anti-idling laws. EPA intent is to educate stakeholders, rather than to promulgate national legislation on idle-reduction. FINDING: The DOE-sponsored demonstrations with two major trucking fleets resulted in The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 6-6 deployment of several idle-reduction devices. Greater success was achieved with cab heating than IDLE with cab cooling. It appears that only one device met the goal of less than 2-year payback. It is EPA’s SmartWay Transport Partnership program has a robust deployment REDUCTION unclear whether the emissions requirement of the goal was met. program for idle reduction technologies. Under the Energy Policy Act of RECOMMENDATION: Given that funding and responsibility for idle-reduction technologies 2005, coupled with recent Congressional appropriations, EPA intends to was redirected in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to EPA and DOT, there is no requirement for fund many grant projects to deploy both mobile and stationary idle DOE to pursue this area. However, given the progress to date and potential attractive returns on reduction technology projects nationally. The wide variety of idle investment, it would be desirable for DOE, EPA, and DOT to continue to advance this aspect of reduction technologies offers many options. Since trucking operations Page 14

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st UPDATED 21 Century Truck Partnership Detailed Responses to NRC Report Findings Update: November 10, 2010 fuel reduction and environmental mitigation. vary widely, no single technology addresses all idle situations; many companies will employ a variety of technologies and strategies throughout their fleet. The federal government organizations involved in this area should coordinate efforts so as to avoid duplicative projects. Navistar has recently completed a DOE-funded APU development project. FINDING: The More Electric Truck program demonstrated an integrated system to reduce idling The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 6-7 emissions and fuel consumption. The test program showed significant progress to achieve the IDLE objectives of goal 6 by demonstrating 1-2 percent estimated reduction in fuel use including Electrification of accessory loads is being pursued by the SuperTruck REDUCTION significant truck idling reductions. According to DOE, this translates into an overall annual fuel project teams. This task becomes even more relevant in light of the efforts savings for the U.S. fleet of 710 to 824 million gallons of diesel fuel (about $2 billion/year at by manufacturers to develop waste heat recovery (WHR) technologies. $2.75/gallon). Availability of electricity consumers onboard will allow WHR devices to RECOMMENDATION: Given the potential of this program to save fuel, the committee avoid the losses involved in converting electricity obtained from exhaust recommends that the 21CTP continue the R&D of the identified system components that will heat energy into mechanical energy. provide more improvements in idle reduction and parasitic losses related to engine components that are more efficient and provide better control of energy use. FINDING: The work on fuel cell APU is being carried out by the DOD and a number of The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 6-8 contractors are being supported. There is no evidence that goal 7 has been met at this time. IDLE RECOMMENDATION: The DOE’s 21CTP should continue to monitor and interact with the DOE will coordinate more closely with DOD to track progress in this area. REDUCTION DOD program. As DOD reaches its goals, DOE should explore with major truck operators the possibility of bringing appropriate fuel cell APU technologies into commercial use. FINDING: The program manager of the 21st Century Truck Partnership has little or no direct The 21st Century Truck (21CT) Partnership agrees that a main factor to be 7-1 authority for heavy-duty truck safety projects because there is no budget in the program itself to used to determine research priorities in the safety area of the program is SAFETY support safety projects. The program manager will need to continue to work with DOT, because potential benefit in terms of fatality reduction. For DOT, improving safety DOT has several initiatives with the goal of making improvements in heavy-duty truck safety. is the Department’s No. 1 goal. They range from driver education to accident avoidance technology. However, the committee was unable to determine whether the goals would be met as a result of these initiatives. Specific to the 21CT program, potential safety benefit is a main factor RECOMMENDATION: DOT should develop a complete and comprehensive list of current and used to determine safety focus areas. These areas include braking, planned heavy-duty truck safety projects and initiatives, and prioritize them in order of potential rollover, vehicle position (safe following distance and in-lane tracking), benefit in reducing heavy-duty truck-related fatalities. The list should provide quantitative visibility (driver vision enhancement), and tire safety. These areas were projections of fatality reduction potential attributable to each project. The list should also be used identified in 21CTP first safety white paper. to prioritize budget and resource allocation, in order to expedite heavy-duty truck safety progress. FINDING: Programs are underway to develop and implement technologies and vehicle systems The Partnership agrees with the recommendation. Within the priority 7-2 to support safety goals. Indeed, private industry, through internal research and commercial product areas identified for 21CT in the safety area, these steps are largely being SAFETY development has produced commercially available systems for enhanced braking, roll stability, implemented. However, similar to the above recommendation, as and lane departure warning. They are beginning to be used in the field. It is now important to currently written, this recommendation is too broad and seems to be for determine to what extent these accident avoidance technologies will reduce the number of DOT research as a whole. Again, it is not within the scope of the 21CT accidents and therefore fatalities and injuries. program to monitor and coordinate all DOT programs related to onboard RECOMMENDATION: DOT should continue programs in support of heavy-duty truck on-board safety systems. safety systems, with emphasis on accident avoidance and with priority set by a comprehensive potential cost/benefit analysis (Recommendation 7-1). Particular emphasis should be placed on monitoring the accident experience of heavy-duty trucks, as these systems begin to be deployed in the field (for example, as electronic stability control systems begin to penetrate the fleet). It is the role of the manufacturers to develop safety systems for commercial application. DOT can play Page 15 159

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st UPDATED 21 Century Truck Partnership Detailed Responses to NRC Report Findings 160 Update: November 10, 2010 important roles in (1) providing support for field tests (known to DOT as Field Operational Tests, in (2) monitoring field data to help substantiate benefit analyses used to prioritize resources, and (3S) implementing regulations that would require the adoption of safety systems that were proved to be effective. With adequate field data, DOT should refine and more rigorously specify and prioritize goals for accident avoidance technologies. FINDING: In spite of extensive improvements in light vehicle crashworthiness made during the The Partnership concurs with this recommendation. 7-3 past decade, the number of fatalities caused by heavy-duty truck accidents has remained nearly SAFETY constant, at approximately 5,000 per year, although the fatality rate has decreased showing that Opening up lines of communication between DOE and DOT has been one progress is being made. In most cases, the occupant(s) of the light vehicle is the one fatally of the very positive outcomes of the program. It provides a great injured. It appears that to make significant safety progress, it will be necessary to reduce the opportunity to exchange information such that the various areas within the number of accidents substantially by implementing accident avoidance technologies as well as program can be discussed and coordination among DOT and DOE. DOE methods for improving driver behavior. In light of this need, DOT future plans have been directed and DOT will continue to share information and coordinate on various largely at accident avoidance technologies. topics such as hydrogen, hybrid electrics, and additional alternative fuels, RECOMMENDATION: The committee agrees with the apparent decision by DOT to put more as they relate to tradeoffs between safety and fuel economy. emphasis on accident avoidance technologies than on additional crashworthiness research. In additional, DOT should continue to focus on driver education and law enforcement. Furthermore, DOE and DOT should work collaboratively, as there often are trade-offs between vehicle safety and fuel economy, for example, as new fuel efficient systems emerge. There are obvious trade- offs between safety and fuel economy in many areas of research such as tire mechanics, braking (especially with respect to hybrid vehicles). Of course, any additional work in aerodynamics or weight reduction might alter the vehicle configuration and therefore its crashworthiness. Moreover, as new fuel efficient systems emerge, such as hybrid electric systems, and vehicles using alternate fuels including, for example, hydrogen, it will be imperative that DOE and DOT work closely to ensure continued progress toward more fuel efficient vehicles but without compromising highway safety. Page 16