Appendix D

Highlights of Selected Propulsion Material Programs

This appendix presents a brief summary of activities in some selected programs on propulsion materials. The presentations cited are from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review held June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, D.C. The last project noted, “High Strength Light Weight Engines for Heavy Duty Diesel Trucks,” was in a formative stage at the time of this report.

•   Catalyst Characterization for Exhaust Aftertreatment (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2010/propulsion_materials/pm028_watkins_2010_p.pdf. Accessed April 5, 2011.)

— Objective: To develop a quantitative understanding of process/product interdependence leading to catalyst systems with improved final quality, meeting prevailing emissions requirements.

— Status: Evaluated the feasibility of the advanced tools at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for quantitative analysis of materials changes underlying the selective catalytic reduction catalyst performance degradation with age. Initiated evaluation of Ammonia Oxidation Catalyst (selected by Cummins).

— CRADA: ORNL with Cummins and Johnson Matthey; completion date: September 2012.

— DOE funding: $196,000 in 2009; $147,000 in 2010.

•   Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2010/propulsion_materials/pm009_lance_2010_o.pdf. Accessed April 5, 2011.)

— Objective: To enable improved models and potential design improvements to reduce fouling and its impact on performance:

1.   Characterize thermophysical properties of the deposit under different operating conditions on model exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler tubes.

2.   Determine long-term changes in deposit properties due to thermal cycling and water/hydrocarbon (HC) condensation.

— Status: Assembled industry team; collected coolers; established experimental setup.

— CRADA: ORNL with Caterpillar, Cummins, Detroit Diesel, GM, John Deere, Modine, Navistar, PACCAR, and Volvo/Mack; completion date: September 2011.

— DOE funding: $300,000 in 2009; $270,000 in 2010.

•   Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2010/propulsion_materials/pm021_blau_2010_p.pdf. Accessed April 5, 2011.)

— Objective: To evaluate spray hole microstructures, nozzle residual stress states, and fatigue properties of current and future materials for high-pressure fuel injector nozzles for diesel engines.

— Status: A fatigue test plan has been used to study the effects of holes on fatigue crack initiation and propagation in current and future nozzle materials (new materials were not identified).

— CRADA: ORNL and Caterpillar; completion date: September 2011.

— DOE funding: $225,000 from 2008 through 2011.

•   Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2010/propulsion_materials/pm010_watkins_2010_o.pdf. Accessed April 5, 2011.)

— Objective: To develop test methods for characterizing the properties of ceramic diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and to develop analysis and inspection methods for assessing their reliability and durability.

— Status: A procedure has been developed for rank ordering the thermal shock resistance of DPF substrates. Proposed future work would characterize



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Appendix D Highlights of Selected Propulsion Material Programs This appendix presents a brief summary of activities in 2. Determine long-term changes in deposit proper- some selected programs on propulsion materials. The pre- ties due to thermal cycling and water/hydrocarbon sentations cited are from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (HC) condensation. Office of Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review held — Status: Assembled industry team; collected coolers; June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, D.C. The last project noted, established experimental setup. “High Strength Light Weight Engines for Heavy Duty Diesel — CRADA: ORNL with Caterpillar, Cummins, Detroit Trucks,” was in a formative stage at the time of this report. Diesel, GM, John Deere, Modine, Navistar, PACCAR, and Volvo/Mack; completion date: September 2011. — DOE funding: $300,000 in 2009; $270,000 in 2010. • Catalyst Characterization for Exhaust Aftertreatment (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/ merit_review_2010/propulsion_materials/pm028_ • Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems watkins_2010_p.pdf. Accessed April 5, 2011.) (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/ — Objective: To develop a quantitative understand- merit_review_2010/propulsion_materials/pm021_ ing of process/product interdependence leading to blau_2010_p.pdf. Accessed April 5, 2011.) catalyst systems with improved final quality, meet- — Objective: To evaluate spray hole microstructures, ing prevailing emissions requirements. nozzle residual stress states, and fatigue properties — Status: Evaluated the feasibility of the advanced of current and future materials for high-pressure tools at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) fuel injector nozzles for diesel engines. for quantitative analysis of materials changes under- — Status: A fatigue test plan has been used to study lying the selective catalytic reduction catalyst per- the effects of holes on fatigue crack initiation and formance degradation with age. Initiated evalua- propagation in current and future nozzle materials tion of Ammonia Oxidation Catalyst (selected by (new materials were not identified). Cummins). — CRADA: ORNL and Caterpillar; completion date: — C RADA : ORNL with Cummins and Johnson September 2011. Matthey; completion date: September 2012. — DOE funding: $225,000 from 2008 through 2011. — DOE funding: $196,000 in 2009; $147,000 in 2010. • Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/ • Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/ merit_review_2010/propulsion_materials/pm010_ merit_review_2010/propulsion_materials/pm009_ watkins_2010_o.pdf. Accessed April 5, 2011.) lance_2010_o.pdf. Accessed April 5, 2011.) — Objective: To develop test methods for character- — Objective: To enable improved models and poten- izing the properties of ceramic diesel particulate tial design improvements to reduce fouling and its filters (DPFs) and to develop analysis and inspec- impact on performance: tion methods for assessing their reliability and 1. Characterize thermophysical properties of the durability. deposit under different operating conditions on — Status: A procedure has been developed for rank model exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler ordering the thermal shock resistance of DPF sub- tubes. strates. Proposed future work would characterize 161

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162 REVIEW OF THE 21ST CENTURY TRUCK PARTNERSHIP, SECOND REPORT field returned DPFs and compare their properties — Objective: Develop new high-performance n-type to virgin filters, using this information to refine and p-type thermoelectric material (TE) composi- lifetime prediction of filters. tions to enable: 17 percent on-highway efficiency of — CRADA: ORNL with Cummins and Corning; first directly converting engine waste heat to electricity phase completed September, 2010; 3-year renewal to help enable improved heavy-truck efficiencies to in progress. 50 percent by 2015. — DOE funding: $318,000 in 2009; $238,000 in 2010. — Status: Determined that n-type Skutterudite mate- rials show excellent thermoelectric properties; p-type Skutterudite materials are more challenging. • Low Cost Titanium—Propulsion Applications (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/ Future work includes characterizing TE properties merit_review_2010/propulsion_materials/pm006_ and validating with third-party testing (ORNL), and lavender_2010_o.pdf. Accessed April 5, 2011.) determining structural properties such as Young’s — O bjective : To reduce the cost to manufacture modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and mechanical strength. titanium components for reciprocating and rotating — PNNL with the Oregon Nanoscience and Micro- applications. technologies Institute, Oregon State University; — Status: A lower cost titanium bar made of sintered project is ongoing. titanium powder (TiH2) appears to meet perfor- mance requirements at lower cost (perhaps as much • Low-Friction Hard Coatings as 50 percent lower than ingot processed forgings). (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/ Cummins has identified an engine application (not merit_review_2010/propulsion_materials/pm030_ specified) for final evaluation. erdemir_2010_p.pdf. Accessed April 5, 2011.) — CRADA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory — O bjective: To design, develop, and implement (PNNL) with Cummins; completion date: October low-friction and superhard coatings to increase the 2012. durability and fuel economy of engine systems. — DOE funding: $300,000 in 2010. — Status: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in cooperation with Istanbul Technical University, has developed a superhard nanocomposite coating that • Fatigue Enhancements by Shock Peening (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/ provides friction coefficients of between 0.02 to merit_review_2010/propulsion_materials/pm002_ 0.05 (compared with steel on steel at 0.10 to 0.15), lavender_2010_o.pdf. Accessed April 5, 2011.) and a production-scale deposition system. Future — Objective: To evaluate the capability for surface work will attempt to validate performance under modification to improve fatigue performance of fired engine conditions. steel, aluminum, and cast iron engine components — CRADA: ANL with Galleon International; Hauzer to enable improved efficiencies by increasing injec- Techno Coating, and several engine original equip- tion pressures and the overall durability of recipro- ment manufacturers; completion date: September cating parts. 2012. — Status: Fatigue life of laser shock peened 52100 — DOE funding: $125,000 in 2009; $200,000 in 2010. steel showed approximately 50 percent increase in rolling contact fatigue life; Cummins is moving to • High Strength Light Weight Engines for Heavy Duty deployment. Diesel Trucks — CRADA: PNNL with Cummins; project completed — Objective: To develop durable lightweight engine in September 2010. components (for example, the use of aluminum in — DOE funding: $350,000 in 2008; $340,000 in 2009; the block and head) for heavy-duty diesel engines. $223,000 in 2010. The project would include the development of a prototype engine. — Status: CRADA under development between ORNL • Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation (http://www1.eere. and Cummins. energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2010/ — Proposed budget for 2011: $500,000. propulsion_materials/pm014_hendricks_2010_o.pdf. Accessed April 5, 2011.)