field returned DPFs and compare their properties to virgin filters, using this information to refine lifetime prediction of filters.

— CRADA: ORNL with Cummins and Corning; first phase completed September, 2010; 3-year renewal in progress.

— DOE funding: $318,000 in 2009; $238,000 in 2010.

•   Low Cost Titanium—Propulsion Applications ( Accessed April 5, 2011.)

— Objective: To reduce the cost to manufacture titanium components for reciprocating and rotating applications.

— Status: A lower cost titanium bar made of sintered titanium powder (TiH2) appears to meet performance requirements at lower cost (perhaps as much as 50 percent lower than ingot processed forgings). Cummins has identified an engine application (not specified) for final evaluation.

— CRADA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with Cummins; completion date: October 2012.

— DOE funding: $300,000 in 2010.

•   Fatigue Enhancements by Shock Peening ( Accessed April 5, 2011.)

— Objective: To evaluate the capability for surface modification to improve fatigue performance of steel, aluminum, and cast iron engine components to enable improved efficiencies by increasing injection pressures and the overall durability of reciprocating parts.

— Status: Fatigue life of laser shock peened 52100 steel showed approximately 50 percent increase in rolling contact fatigue life; Cummins is moving to deployment.

— CRADA: PNNL with Cummins; project completed in September 2010.

— DOE funding: $350,000 in 2008; $340,000 in 2009; $223,000 in 2010.

•   Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation ( Accessed April 5, 2011.)

— Objective: Develop new high-performance n-type and p-type thermoelectric material (TE) compositions to enable: 17 percent on-highway efficiency of directly converting engine waste heat to electricity to help enable improved heavy-truck efficiencies to 50 percent by 2015.

— Status: Determined that n-type Skutterudite materials show excellent thermoelectric properties; p-type Skutterudite materials are more challenging. Future work includes characterizing TE properties and validating with third-party testing (ORNL), and determining structural properties such as Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and mechanical strength.

—PNNL with the Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute, Oregon State University; project is ongoing.

•   Low-Friction Hard Coatings ( Accessed April 5, 2011.)

— Objective: To design, develop, and implement low-friction and superhard coatings to increase the durability and fuel economy of engine systems.

— Status: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in cooperation with Istanbul Technical University, has developed a superhard nanocomposite coating that provides friction coefficients of between 0.02 to 0.05 (compared with steel on steel at 0.10 to 0.15), and a production-scale deposition system. Future work will attempt to validate performance under fired engine conditions.

— CRADA: ANL with Galleon International; Hauzer Techno Coating, and several engine original equipment manufacturers; completion date: September 2012.

— DOE funding: $125,000 in 2009; $200,000 in 2010.

•   High Strength Light Weight Engines for Heavy Duty Diesel Trucks

— Objective: To develop durable lightweight engine components (for example, the use of aluminum in the block and head) for heavy-duty diesel engines. The project would include the development of a prototype engine.

— Status: CRADA under development between ORNL and Cummins.

— Proposed budget for 2011: $500,000.

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