•   SmartWay Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). LCVs, A Glance at Clean Freight Strategies, 2010. LCVs generally have much better ton-mile fuel economy than other combination trucks. Increased productivity cuts fuel consumption and reduces greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions. LCVs have inherent stability and control limitations because of their length and number of trailers. Therefore, it is important that only experienced drivers under safe conditions operate LCVs. Widespread use of LCVs could have an adverse affect on bridges and other transportation infrastructure. Available at http://www.epa.gov/smartwaylogistics/transport/documents/tech/longer-combination-vehicles.pdf.


National Transport Commission, 2005. Report that summarizes a 5-year, multi-stage project that investigated the behavior of long multi-combination vehicles transporting high center of gravity, heavy loads; found that spring versus air suspensions are more stable, and identified a new parameter that was used to characterize tracking misbehavior, Lateral Acceleration Gain. Available at http://www.ntc.gov.au/filemedia/Reports/RAG4OverarchingReportJan2005.pdf.


1.   Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Study.1986.13 volumes. Roads and Transportation Association of Canada, Ottawa.

2.   Woodrooffe, J., P. Sweatman, D. Middleton, R. James, and J.R. Billing. 2010. Review of Canadian Experience with the Regulation of Large Commercial Motor Vehicles. National Academy of Sciences NCHRP Report 671. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

3.   Ervin, R.D., and Y. Guy. 1986. The Influence of Weights and Dimensions on the Stability and Control of Heavy Trucks in Canada—Part 1. Prepared by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute for Roads and Transportation Association of Canada, Ottawa.

4.   National Transportation Council. 2003. Performance Based Standards: Phase A- Standards and Measures. Regulatory Impact Statement. Melbourne, Australia.

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10. Scopatz, R.A., and B.H. DeLucia. 2000. Longer Combination Vehicle Safety Data Collection. Washington, D.C.: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

11. Government of Alberta Transportation. See http://www.transportation.albetaca/1179.htm.

12. British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure. See http://www.th.gov.bc.ca/cvse/LCV/faqs.htm.

13. New Brunswick Department of Transportation. 2010. Guidelines for Long Vehicle Combinations (LCVs) in the Province of New Brunswick. Version 4. Fredericton, New Brunswick.

14. Nova Scotia Department of Transportation, Infrastructure Renewal. 2009. Long Combination Vehicle Pilot Project. Halifax, Nova Scotia.

15. Ontario Ministry of Transportation. 2009. Ontario LCV Pilot Program Conditions. Toronto.

16. Council of Deputy Ministers Responsible for Transportation and Highway Safety. 2009. Task Force on Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Policy—Meeting Minutes. Ottawa.

17. Government of Saskatchewan, Department of Highways and Infrastructure. See http://www.highways.gov.sk.ca/trucking-programs/.

18. Woodrooffe, J., and L. Ash. 2001. Long Combination Vehicle (LCV) Safety Performance in Alberta 1995 to 1998. Edmonton, Alberta: Alberta Transportation.

19. Montufar, J., J. Regehr, G. Rempel, and R. McGregor. 2007. Long Combination Vehicle (LCV) Safety Performance in Alberta: 1999-2005. Edmonton, Alberta: Alberta Transportation.

20. Organization for Economic Cooperation Development. 2011. Moving Freight with Better Trucks: Improving Safety, Productivity and Sustainability. International Transport Forum. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

21. Woodrooffe, J., K.P. Glaeser, P. Nordengen, M. Bereni, A. Germanchev, P. Eady, and B. Jacob. 2010. Safety,

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