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Appendix C

Biographical Information

 

UNITED STATES

PENINA AXELRAD is professor of aerospace engineering sciences (AES) with the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research (CCAR) at the University of Colorado, Boulder. She received her S.B. and S.M. in aeronautical and astronautical engineering, with an emphasis in avionics, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1985 and 1986, respectively, and her Ph.D. in aeronautics and astronautics from Stanford University in 1991. From 1991 to 1992 she was on the technical staff at Stanford Telecommunications in Santa Clara, California, where she worked on the development of GPS time-transfer systems, kinematic GPS algorithms, integrated GPS/inertial navigation systems, and a variety of other programs. At that time Dr. Axelrad also taught two courses at Stanford as an instructor.

In 1992 Dr. Axelrad joined the faculty in AES at Colorado as an assistant professor; she was promoted to associate professor with tenure in 1999 and to professor in August 2005. She served as associate chair of the department from 2005 to 2007 and acting chair for the 2007–2008 academic year. Dr. Axelrad has been active in research on GPS technology and primarily for space applications. She has published more than 40 technical papers and 90 conference papers and was co-editor of GPS: Theory and Applications. She has also been principal investigator or co-investigator on 50 research grants and contracts totaling more than $6 million. Dr. Axelrad’s research interests include technology and algorithms for GPS-based orbit and attitude determination for spacecraft in low- and high-Earth orbit, multipath characterization and correction for spacecraft, aircraft, and ground reference stations, and remote sensing using GPS-based bistatic radar and occultation measurements.



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Appendix C Biographical Information UNITED STATES PENINA AXELRAD is professor of aerospace engineering sciences (AES) with the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research (CCAR) at the University of Colorado, Boulder. She received her S.B. and S.M. in aeronautical and astronau - tical engineering, with an emphasis in avionics, from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1985 and 1986, respectively, and her Ph.D. in aeronautics and astronautics from Stanford University in 1991. From 1991 to 1992 she was on the technical staff at Stanford Telecommunications in Santa Clara, California, where she worked on the development of GPS time-transfer systems, kinematic GPS algorithms, integrated GPS/inertial navigation systems, and a variety of other programs. At that time Dr. Axelrad also taught two courses at Stanford as an instructor. In 1992 Dr. Axelrad joined the faculty in AES at Colorado as an assistant pro- fessor; she was promoted to associate professor with tenure in 1999 and to professor in August 2005. She served as associate chair of the department from 2005 to 2007 and acting chair for the 2007–2008 academic year. Dr. Axelrad has been active in research on GPS technology and primarily for space applications. She has published more than 40 technical papers and 90 conference papers and was co-editor of GPS: Theory and Applications. She has also been principal investigator or co-investigator on 50 research grants and contracts totaling more than $6 million. Dr. Axelrad’s research interests include technology and algorithms for GPS-based orbit and attitude determination for spacecraft in low- and high-Earth orbit, multipath char- acterization and correction for spacecraft, aircraft, and ground reference stations, and remote sensing using GPS-based bistatic radar and occultation measurements. 251

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252 GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS Dr. Axelrad has been an active member of the Institute of Navigation (ION) since 1985, and has held several positions in the organization, including president, associate editor of Navigation, student session chair, space representative, Western Region vice president, chair of the ION GPS Program, and secretary of the Satel - lite Division. She is a fellow of ION and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), a senior member of IEEE, and a member of Sigma Xi. In 1994–1995 Dr. Axelrad served on the National Research Council Committee on the Future of GPS. In recognition of her contributions to the field, she has received the 1996 Lawrence Sperry Award from AIAA and the 2009 Johannes Kepler Award and 2003 Tycho Brahe Award from ION. LANCE A. DAVIS is the executive officer of the National Academy of Engineer- ing (NAE) . Under Congressional charter, the NAE provides advice to the federal government, when requested, on matters of science and technology. As chief operating officer of the NAE, Dr. Davis is responsible for the program, financial, and membership operations and reports directly to the NAE president. Prior to joining the NAE, Dr. Davis served as deputy director, Defense Research and Engineering (Laboratory Management and Technology Transi - tion) at the Pentagon from 1994 to 1999. In this capacity, he exercised oversight responsibility for the $11 billion Department of Defense (DOD) laboratory system and DOD dual-use and technology-transfer activities. He chaired the Lab Consolidation Working Group charged with restructuring the DOD labora - tory system and the Affordability Task Force charged with balancing the cost/ performance equation in Defense Science and Technology. Other major activities included the Quadrennial Defense Review, Lab Quality Improvement Program, Lab Diversification Program, Small Business Innovation Research, Industry IR&D, Manufacturing Science and Technology, and the Defense Technical Infor- mation Center. Dr. Davis spent most of his career in industry at Allied-Signal Inc. (now Honeywell). He joined Allied Chemical as a research scientist in 1968 and moved through a succession of R&D management positions leading to appointment as vice president of Corporate Research and Development (R&D) in 1984. He con - tinued in this capacity until joining DOD in 1994. As vice president of R&D, he was responsible for a corporate staff of up to 450 people with an annual expense budget in current dollars of about $100 million and a capital budget of $15 million, and engaged in research and new product development related to metals, ceramics, crystal growth, electro-optics, device fabrication, thin film deposition, polymer chemistry, engineered plastics, fibers and films, composites and biotechnology. Dr. Davis graduated summa cum laude from Lafayette College in 1961 with a B.S. in metallurgical engineering. He received a master’s of engineering in 1963 and a Ph.D. in engineering and applied science from Yale University in 1966. He spent two years as a postdoctoral fellow at Yale University before joining Allied. Dr. Davis is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and Tau Beta Pi. He was elected to

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253 APPENDIX C NAE in 1992 and received the Defense Manufacturing Excellence Award from the Multi-Association Industry Affordability Task Force in December 1999. LEO ELDREDGE is manager of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) group of the Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Organization (ATO) responsible for the Wide Area Augmentation System, Local Area Augmen- Augmen- tation System, GPS civil requirements, and implementation of all FAA satellite navigation programs. He has more than 15 years of experience in program man - agement and more than 3,000 hours of flying experience with an Airline Transport Pilot rating. Mr. Eldredge has an M.S. degree in computer information systems, was recipient of the Norman P. Hayes Award from the U.S. Institute of Naviga- tion in 2008, and is the U.S. nominated representative to the Navigation Systems Panel of the International Civil Aviation Organization. PER ENGE is the Kleiner-Perkins Professor in the School of Engineering at Stanford University, where he is also director of the GPS Research Laboratory. The GPS Laboratory pioneers satellite-based navigation systems for aviation and mari - time use, two of which are in widespread use today. The first system uses medium frequency beacons to broadcast differential GPS corrections to some 1.5 million, mostly marine, users around the globe. The second system, called a space-based augmentation system (SBAS), uses geostationary satellites to broadcast differen - tial corrections and real-time error bounds to GPS users across continental areas. Today, SBAS supports millions of GPS users. including 70,000 aircraft during instrument approach to airports. A third system, called a ground-based augmenta- tion system (GBAS), uses a very-high-frequency data broadcast to support aircraft landing operations. GBAS is designed to support aircraft landings in zero visibility. Dr. Enge has received the Kepler, Thurlow, and Burka Awards and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the Institute of Navigation and IEEE. In 1983, he received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois, where he designed and analyzed an orthogonal signal set for code division multiple access communications. GRACE XINGXIN GAO is a research associate in the Department of Aeronau- tics and Astronautics at Stanford University. She received her B.S. in mechanical engineering in 2001 and her M.S. in electrical engineering in 2003, both from Tsinghua University, China. She received her Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 2008. Dr. Gao currently conducts research on arctic navigation, the Multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and GNSS monitoring, all sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration. She has won a number of awards, including the RTCA (Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics) William E. Jackson Award and the Institute of Navigation Early Achievement Award, and was named one of 50 GNSS Leaders to Watch by GPS World Magazine in 2009.

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254 GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS RITA LOLLOCK is general manager of the Navigation Division at The Aerospace Corporation, which provides direct support to the U.S. Air Force GPS Program Office. Before joining Aerospace, she was employed by LTV Missiles and Elec- tronics, where she worked on modeling and simulation, guidance and navigation problems for several inertial navigation and radar-homing programs, the Extended Range Interceptor, and the Kinetic Kill Vehicle for the Space-Based Interceptor. Ms. Lollock joined the Engineering and Technology Division of The Aerospace Corporation in 1989. In subsequent years she transferred to the GPS Program Office as a project engineer, and she was promoted to systems director for military user equipment, chaired the Technology Assessment Panel of the Navigation Warfare Evaluation Team (NET), assumed the responsibilities of systems director for GPS modernization, was promoted to principal director for GPSIII and military applications, then principal director for system engineering in the GPS Program Office, and, in 2005, assumed her current position. She holds a B.S. and M.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Texas at Arlington, with emphasis on control systems. MICHAEL O’CONNOR is a recognized pioneer in the booming field of preci- sion agriculture. As a graduate student at Stanford University in 1994, he led the team that invented the world’s first farm tractor steering-control system using GPS. Upon graduation in 1997, he joined IntegriNautics (now Novariant Inc.), where he founded the AutoFarm business and delivered the world’s first sub-inch, hands-free steering products to farmers in 1998. As the business grew to more than 150 employees, Dr. O’Connor held a variety of executive positions in the company, including chief technology officer, vice president of business develop - ment, and chief executive officer. Dr. O’Connor (B.S., 1992, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; M.S., 1993, and Ph.D., 1997, Stanford University) was named to the list of Top Young Innovators by Technology Review Magazine in 2003 and was included in the inaugural list of 50 Faces to Watch in GPS in 2006 by GPS World Magazine. He was inducted into the Space Technology Hall of Fame in 2006. In 2010, Dr. O’Connor founded an independent consulting practice, O’C and Associates, to provide technology and business management services to companies work - ing in precision agriculture, location-based solutions, and vehicle dynamics and control. Dr. O’Connor is currently a member of the board of directors for iKare Corporation and Solum Inc. BRADFORD W. PARKINSON received a B.S. in general engineering from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1957, an M.S. in aeronautics and astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1961, and a Ph.D. in aeronautics and astronautics-guidance and control from Stanford University in 1966. Currently, he is co-principal investigator and associate program manager of the NASA/Stanford Relativity Gyroscope Experiment Gravity Probe B program, a test program to

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255 APPENDIX C validate Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity using orbiting gyroscopes. He also has led a Stanford research group to develop innovative uses of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for aviation. He has been the Edward C. Wells Profes - sor at Stanford University in the Aeronautics and Astronautics Department and the W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Lab since 1984. He is currently a recalled Emeritus Professor. Dr. Parkinson was vice president and general manager of Intermetrics Inc. in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was president of PlantStar Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary that was dedicated to industrial productivity monitoring. From 1979–1980 Dr. Parkinson was vice-president for business development at Rock- well International Space Systems Group and also ran the advanced engineering and business development group. In 1978, he was a professor of mechanical engineering at Colorado State University. A distinguished graduate of the Air Command and Staff College and U.S. Naval War College, Dr. Parkinson acted as head of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science at the U.S. Air Force Academy. In 1973, he created and then managed the Navstar GPS general program office until he retired with the rank of colonel in 1978. In 1972 he was chief engineer for the Advance Ballistic Re-Entry Program. From 1966 to 1968, he instructed astronautics, guidance, and control at the USAF Test Pilot’s School at Edwards Air Force Base. Dr. Parkinson was elected to the NAE in 1990 and has served as an NAE Councillor since July 2006. He was co-recipient of the Charles Stark Draper Prize in 2003. He has served as chair, vice chair, and member of the NAE Aerospace Engineering Peer Committee, as the peer committee chair on the Committee on Membership, and as a member on the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems. He also has served on the National Research Council Committee for an Assessment of Precision Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Science and Technol- ogy; the Task Force on the National Research Council Goals and Operations; the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board; the Committee on the Enhanced, Lower Cost Air Force Space Systems; and the Panel on Advanced Navigation Technology. Dr. Parkinson is a fellow of the Royal Institute of Navigation, the IEEE (1990; Life Fellow 2008), the (American) Institute of Navigation (1999), and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) (1991). He also is a member of the International Academy of Astronautics and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), and was inducted into the Silicon Valley Hall of Fame in 2007. Dr. Parkinson is the recipient of the IEEE Simon Ramo Award (2002), Kershner Award (1986), Pioneer Award (1994), and Sperry Award (1998); the Institute of Navigation’s Thurlow Award (1986), Burka Award (1987), and Kepler Award (1991); NASA’s Public Service Medal (1994) and Distinguished Public Service Medal (2001); Navstar Joint Program Office GPS Hall of Fame Award (1993); the Royal Institute of Navigation’s Gold Medal (1983); Ameri- can Philosophical Society Magellanic Premium Medal (1997); AIAA Goddard Astronautics Award (2006), Von Karman Lectureship (1996), and Aerospace

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256 GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS Contribution to Society Medal (2001); the ASME Gold Medal (2004); and the Defense Department Superior Performance Award for Best Program Director in the Air Force (1977). He has authored more than 50 papers on the subjects of guidance, navigation, and control and is co-editor and author of the best-selling AIAA book, Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications. THOMAS D. POWELL is a systems director at The Aerospace Corporation, supporting the Engineering and Technology Branch of the GPS Directorate at Los Angeles Air Force Base. He leads the GNSS Engineering and Technology Group, which provides systems engineering support on issues of GPS constellation sus- tainment, satellite reliability, technology development, and spectrum management. He has supported the GPS program for more than 15 years at Aerospace, including work on handheld GPS receivers and bilateral coordination with other GNSS pro- viders. He holds a B.S. degree in aeronautical and astronautical engineering from Purdue University, an M.S. in aerospace engineering from the University of Texas at Austin, and a Ph.D. in aerospace engineering from University of California, Los Angeles. PROCTOR P. REID is director of the National Academy of Engineering’s (NAE) Program Office. In this capacity, he oversees all NAE program activities and staff and directs the NAE policy research programs on Engineering, the Economy, and Society; Engineering and Health Care; and Engineering, Energy and the Environ- ment. Beginning his tenure with the NAE Program Office in 1988 as an NAE fellow, Dr. Reid was appointed senior program officer in 1991, associate director in 1996, co-director in 2000, and director in 2005. Since joining the Academy, he has served as the lead professional staff to multiple NAE committee studies, workshops, and symposia on issues related to the globalization of engineering, technological dimensions of competitiveness, engineering and health care, and the future of engineering education, research, and practice. Recently he co-directed a bilateral study of opportunities for U.S.-Chinese cooperation in electricity generation from renewable resources and a consensus report on the role of noise control technology and policy in achieving a quieter environment. He is currently overseeing development of a joint National Academies-U.S. Institute of Peace roundtable on technology, science, and peacebuilding and a joint NAE-Institute of Medicine initiative on engineering and health systems. In addition to his work with the Academy, Dr. Reid has served as secretary to the AAAS Section on Industrial Science and Technology. He has been a professorial lecturer in European studies at the Johns Hopkins University Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies. Before joining the NAE, he was an instructor in political economy at Oberlin College (1986–1987) and worked as a consultant to the National Research Council (1988) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (1984–1985). He received his B.A. from Dartmouth College in 1979 and his Ph.D. in international relations from Johns Hopkins University in 1989.

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257 APPENDIX C STUART RILEY received his Ph.D. in electrical and electronics from the Uni- versity of Leeds, United Kingdom, in 1994. In 1990 he started his university research in the field of GNSS receiver development. Following his graduate work he worked for a year as a research fellow at Leeds developing a GPS/GLONASS receiver for space applications funded by the European Space Agency. In 1995 he joined Trimble Navigation Limited in Sunnyvale, California, and since then has held various engineering roles. He is currently the site director of engineering for the Sunnyvale Engineering and Construction group. He has product responsibili - ties for the GNSS receivers developed for the Survey, Construction, Infrastructure and High Precision OEM groups (example products are the R8 GNSS, MS992, NetR9 & BD970). He is also responsible for the core GNSS application-specific integrated circuits, and signal processing for Trimble’s precision products, which are used across products including geographic information system and agriculture receivers as well as the survey, construction, infrastructure, and OEM products. He holds several patents, both issued and pending, and has published numerous technical papers on GNSS. CHARLES R. TRIMBLE is the principal founder of Trimble Navigation Limited and served as president, chief executive officer, and chairman from 1981 to 1998. He strategically guided Trimble to its dominant role in the GPS information technology market. Mr. Trimble has been personally responsible for many of the breakthrough innovations at Trimble. For example, he holds the underlying patent on which the very successful TANS products are based. Under his leadership, Trimble grew from a startup housed above a theater to the first publicly held U.S. company engaged in providing GPS solutions. Prior to found - ing Trimble, Mr. Trimble had already established a reputation for innovation in development at Hewlett Packard, as manager of Integrated Circuit Research and Development at Hewlett Packard’s Santa Clara division. He led important commercial advances in four areas: (1) the efficient quantization of noisy sig - nals and their subsequent signal processing; (2) high-speed monolithic analog to digital converters; (3) ultra-high-precision single-shot digital time interval measurement techniques; and (4) establishment of the IEEE 488 bus standard. Mr. Trimble is a principal founder and current chairman of the U.S. GPS Indus - try Council (USGIC). He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the Board of Trustees of the California Institute of Technology, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the NASA Advisory Council. Mr. Trimble has served as a member of the Board of Governors for the National Center for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Mr. Trimble received his B.S. degree in engineering physics, with honors, in 1963, his M.S. degree in electrical engineering in 1964, and the Distinguished Alumni Award in 1995 from the California Institute of Technology. Mr. Trimble holds four GPS-related U.S. patents and has published articles in the field of signal processing, electronics, and GPS.

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258 GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS DAVID A. TURNER is deputy director, Office of Space and Advanced Technol- ogy (SAT), Bureau of Oceans, Environment, and Science, U.S. State Department. Together with the office director, he manages SAT’s broad portfolio of civil and dual-use space cooperation issues and diplomatic efforts focused on multilateral science and advanced technology activities, including the development and imple- mentation of the civil aspects of National Space Policy. Previously, Mr. Turner was an employee of the Aerospace Corporation, serv- ing as director of the Corporation’s Center for Space Policy and Strategy, which conducts space policy and strategy analyses for government customers. He was also a senior project engineer within the Corporation, focusing on GPS policy and technology matters, such as compatibility and interoperability with other satellite navigation systems, and GPS modernization. Mr. Turner also served in the U.S. Department of Commerce as the Executive Secretariat Director of the Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB), providing technical and managerial support to the IGEB and its Senior Steering Group, and forming working groups under its auspices. While in this position, he was a key member of the U.S. delegation that negotiated the June 2004 agreement between the United States and Europe on cooperation between the GPS and Galileo satel - lite navigation programs. Prior to his employment with the Aerospace Corporation and the federal gov - ernment, Mr. Turner was a staff officer of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board of the National Academies and a consultant to the Science Policy Research Division of the Congressional Research Service. A.J. VAN DIERENDONCK (BSEE ‘61; MSEE ’65; PhDEE ’68) recently received the Iowa State University Alumni Association’s Distinguished Alumni Award for being internationally recognized for preeminent contributions to their professions or life’s work. Dr. Van Dierendonck made major contributions to global positioning systems (GPS) technology spanning 37 years. In particular, he is the co-inventor of the use of narrow correlator technology, which is now an industry standard for GPS receivers for multipath mitigation. He was also a major contributor in the design of the GPS L5 signal. He has received awards from the U.S. Institute of Navigation (ION) including the Burka Award (which he received twice), the Kepler Award, and the Thurlow Award. He also is an ION fellow, an IEEE fellow, and is in the U.S. Air Force’s GPS Hall of Fame. He is currently the owner of AJ Systems and a partner of GPS Silicon Valley in Los Altos, California. For AJ Systems, he supports the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, NASA, and the U.S. GPS Industry Council, primarily in GNSS Spectrum protection. For GPS Silicon Valley, he provides receivers to the international community for monitoring ionospheric scintillation. CHARLES M. VEST is president of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and President Emeritus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

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259 APPENDIX C Dr. Vest earned a B.S. in mechanical engineering from West Virginia Uni- versity in 1963, and M.S.E. and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering from the University of Michigan in 1964 and 1967, respectively. He joined the fac- ulty of the University of Michigan as an assistant professor in 1968 where he taught in the areas of heat transfer, thermodynamics, and fluid mechanics, and conducted research in heat transfer and engineering applications of laser optics and holography. He and his graduate students developed techniques for making quantitative measurements of various properties and motions from holographic interferograms, especially the measurement of three-dimensional temperature and density fields using computer tomography. He became an associate professor in 1972 and a full professor in 1977. In 1981 Dr. Vest turned much of his attention to academic administration at the University of Michigan, serving as associate dean of engineering from 1981–1986 and dean of engineering from 1986–1989, when he became provost and vice president for academic affairs. In 1990 he became president of MIT and served in that position until December 2004. He then became professor and President Emeritus. As president of MIT, he was active in science, technology, and innova- tion policy; building partnerships among academia, government and industry; and championing the importance of open, global scientific communication, travel, and sharing of intellectual resources. During his tenure, MIT launched its OpenCourseWare (OCW) initiative; co-founded the Alliance for Global Sus - tainability; enhanced the racial, gender, and cultural diversity of its students and faculty; established major new institutes in neuroscience and genomic medicine; and redeveloped much of its campus. He was a director of DuPont for 14 years and of IBM for 13 years; was vice chair of the U.S. Council on Competitiveness for eight years; and served on vari - ous federal committees and commissions, including the President’s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology during the Clinton and Bush adminis - trations, the Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction, the Secretary of Education’s Commis - sion on the Future of Higher Education, the Secretary of State’s Advisory Com- mittee on Transformational Diplomacy, and the Rice-Chertoff Secure Borders and Open Doors Advisory Committee. He serves on the boards of several non-profit organizations and foundations devoted to education, science, and technology. In July 2007 he was elected to serve as president of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering for six years. He has authored a book on holographic interferometry and two books on higher education. He has received honorary doctoral degrees from 15 universities. He was awarded the 2006 National Medal of Technology by President Bush and received the 2011 Vannevar Bush Award. TODD WALTER received his B.S. in physics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and his Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1993. He is currently a senior

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260 GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS research engineer at Stanford University. He is a co-chair of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) WAAS Integrity Performance Panel focused on the imple - mentation of WAAS. His current activities include defining future architectures to provide aircraft guidance and working with the FAA on the implementation of dual-frequency WAAS. Key early contributions include: prototype development proving the feasibility of WAAS, significant contribution to WAAS MOPS, and design of integrity algorithms for WAAS. He is a fellow of the ION and serves as its president. CHINA BAI SHULIN is deputy director of the Advanced Technology Institute, Peking University, and deputy director of the Joint Center of GNSS, Ministry of Edu - cation, China. He received a bachelor’s degree in 1983 from the Department of Materials Engineering and a master’s degree in 1986 from the Department of Engineering Mechanics, both of Dalian University of Technology, China. In 1989, he received a DEA (equivalent to an M.S.) and, in 1993, a doctoral degree (comparable to a Ph.D.) from Ecole Centrale d’Arts et Manufactures de Paris, France. Dr. Bai’s major research work is on polymer composites, includ - ing fiber-reinforced and particle-filled polymer composites and polymer blends. Material systems he has investigated include: glass fiber/epoxy, carbon fiber/ epoxy, wood fiber/PP, PP/PA6 blends, nano CaCO 3/HDPE, nano SiO2/epoxy, steel fiber/PA, steel fiber + carbon nanotubes/PA, glass fiber/PP, etc. Dr. Bai has published more than 70 papers. BAI YAN is associate research fellow in the Navigation and Communications Department of the National Time Service Center and leader of the “Western Light” Program of the Chinese Academy of Science. Her research has focused on navigation signal systems and signature analysis. Previously, Dr. Bai was the lead researcher in the Main Direction Program of Knowledge Innovation of the Chinese Academy of Science, a project supported by the National High Tech - nology Research and Development Program of China. She has published more than 10 papers in leading journals. CHEN JINPING received his Ph.D. in geodesy from Zhengzhou Surveying and Mapping College in 2001. He is currently a senior engineer at Beijing Global Information Application and Development Center. His current research includes designing integrity algorithms for GNSS and defining future integrity architec- tures for COMPASS. DING QUN is a senior engineer in Xi’an Research Institute of Navigation Tech- nology engaged in studying satellite navigation receivers, DGNSS technology, and satellite navigation application systems. He received his bachelor’s of infor-

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261 APPENDIX C mation engineering from Xidian University and his master’s of communications and information from Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. DU XIAODONG is director of the Satellite Navigation Department at Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry, where he is responsible for department man - agement, project planning, and strategic decision making. He leads 11 GNSS engineering and technology groups (110 people), working in the design and use of GNSS receivers and payloads. Mr. Du holds an M.S. in information and com - munication engineering from Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics and has been working in the field of satellite navigation for 17 years. HAN SHAOWEI received his Ph.D. in satellite geodesy and navigation from the University of New South Wales and his master’s and bachelor’s degrees in satellite geodesy and navigation from Wuhan University. He is the founder and CEO/president of Unicore Communications Inc., Beijing, China. The company is developing GNSS chips and OEM boards that have BeiDou/Compass func - tionality. Previously, Dr. Han was vice president of Location Technology and SoC Engineering at SiRF Technology Inc.; vice president of Engineering and Advanced Technologies in Centrality Communications before merging with SiRF; and principal scientist and Advanced Technology Group manager at Thales Navi- gation (formerly Magellan). In addition to his industry experience, Dr. Han was a senior lecturer at the University of New South Wales, Australia, and associate professor at Wuhan University (formerly Wuhan Technical University of Survey- ing and Mapping). His research on navigation has contributed to more than 140 publications and more than 10 patents. HAN TAO is a research assistant in the Navigation and Communication Depart- ment of the National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Science. Previ- ously, he was the lead researcher on a project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China. His main fields of investigation are navigation algorithms, data processing methods, GNSS interoperability, and mathematical modeling. Mr. Han received his M.S. from Northwest University in 2009 and was awarded the Outstanding Youth Paper Award of the First China Satellite Naviga- tion Conference. He has published more than 10 journal papers. LIU JINGNAN is an expert in geodesy and surveying engineering, with a special focus on GNSS technology and applications. He graduated from the former Wuhan College of Surveying and Mapping and received a master’s degree in 1982. In 1999, he was elected Academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. From August 2003 to November 2008, he was president of Wuhan University, and since 1998, he has been director of the National Engi - neering Research Center for Satellite Positioning Systems. Currently, he is

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262 GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS the 11th member of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. Over the past few decades, Dr. Liu has been engaged in research on geodetic theories and applications, including the establishment of a national coordinate system, GNSS technology and software development, and large project imple - mentation. Several GNSS software systems have been developed under his leader- ship (e.g., comprehensive data processing software for GPS satellite-positioning systems and the establishment of provincial and city CORS systems). He has been awarded more than 10 national or provincial prizes for progress in science and technology, has published more than 150 academic papers, and has supervised more than 100 postgraduates. LU JUN works in the Beijing Institute of Tracking and Telecommunications Technology, where her efforts have focused on the overall design and international cooperation for the BeiDou satellite navigation system. Dr. Lu’s main areas of investigation are navigation frequency, signal system design, and GNSS compat- ibility and interoperability. She was awarded the provincial and ministerial Sci - ence and Technology Advancement Award Prize several times and has published more than 10 papers in leading journals. LU XIAOCHUN is a professor and Ph.D. supervisor in the Navigation and Communication Research Laboratory, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Her research interests include satellite navigation and time synchronization. Dr. Lu led a navigation team in the China Academy of Science Knowledge Innovation Project, called China Area Positioning System (CAPS). She proposed a time synchronization method for CAPS transmitted signals and a method of CAPS satellite timing and designed the CAPS satel - lite signals. Another project in which she participated, Integrated Baseband Equipment, won Third Prize of National Defense Science and Technology. Her recent research has been focused on the seamless integration of navigation and positioning technology, including integrated navigation and positioning tech - nology in the urban environment based on satellite positioning systems, digital TV positioning, ultra wide-band indoor positioning, and cell phone positioning. Since 2008, she has concentrated on the monitoring and evaluation of navigation satellite signals and signal compatibility and interoperation of GNSS. Dr. Lu has published more than 30 academic papers in domestic and foreign periodicals and owns several patents. NIE JUNWEI received a B.S. and M.S. from National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China, in 2005 and 2007, respectively. As a Ph.D. can - didate, his interests are focused on signal array processing and techniques for suppressing interference in GNSS receivers.

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263 APPENDIX C TAN SHUSEN, deputy chief designer of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Project, has conducted research on navigation satellite systems for more than 20 years and hosted the research and construction of the ground application sys - tem of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite Demonstration System and China Navi- gation Satellite Augmentation System. He has been awarded one item of the first and one item of the second order awards for national progress and has published several monographs, including “Engineering of Satellite Navigation and Position - ing” and “The Comprehensive RDSS Global Position and Report System.” WANG LIHENG, research fellow, is an expert in missile propulsion technology and aerospace engineering management. He is a past chief engineer and vice minister of the Ministry of Aerospace Industry, executive vice president of China Aerospace Corporation, and president of China Aerospace Science and Technol - ogy Corporation (CASC). Currently, he is the academician of the International Academy of Astronautics and Academy of Engineering. Dr. Wang led the devel - opment of China’s first solid motor for a coastal-defense missile, a technological breakthrough. As vice commander of China’s Manned Space Flight Program from 1999 to 2002, he was responsible for the development and testing of the manned spaceship and launch vehicle and the successful launch and recovery of the Shenzhou-1 and -2 spaceships. He also was responsible for the maiden flight of key defense equipment, including five new kinds of satellites. Dr. Wang’s innovations in management and adaptation to changes in the economic system have contributed to the sustainable development of the aerospace industry. He has received two national awards for progress in science and technology. WANG XUE works in the Navigation and Communication Department of the National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Science. His main areas of research are: navigation frequency and signal system design, signal system valida- tion, GNSS space signal quality assessment, and GNSS interoperability. Dr. Wang received his master’s degree in communication and information engineering in 2007 and his Ph.D. in celestial bodies and celestial mechanics in 2011 from Xi’an University of Electronic Science and Technology. YANG YUANXI is professor of geodesy and navigation at both Xi’an Research Institute of Surveying and Mapping and the China National Administration of GNSS and Application. He received his S.B and S.M. in geodesy from Zhengzhou Institute of Surveying and Mapping in 1980 and 1987 and his Ph.D. in geodesy from the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics of the Chinese Academy of Science in 1991. From 1991 to 1998, he was associate professor and then full professor at Zhengzhou Institute of Surveying and Mapping. Until 2009, he was deputy direc - tor and chief engineer at the Xi’an Research Institute of Surveying and Mapping. Dr. Yang’s international experience includes a year as a visiting scholar at the Center for Space Research, University of Texas (1995), and a year as research

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264 GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS scientist (Humboldt Fellow) at the Institute of Theoretical Geodesy at Bonn Uni - versity, Germany (1996–1997). In 2007, Dr. Yang was honored as an “Academic Member of the Chinese Academy.” He is co-author of three monographs and the author of two mono - graphs and more than 200 papers. He has also received two items of the second order national progress awards of science and technology and one item of the third order national nature science progress award. ZHOU JI, president of the Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE), specialized in mechanical engineering. He graduated from Tsinghua University in 1970 and received his Ph.D. from the State University of New York at Buffalo in 1984. A professor at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Dr. Zhou successively served as president of HUST, director-general of the Hubei Provin- cial Department of Science and Technology, mayor of Wuhan city, and minister of education. He was elected a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering in 1999. During his career, Dr. Zhou was actively involved in research and develop - ment of optimal design, computer-aided design (CAD), and numeric-control (NC) technology. He advanced the algorithm of direct interpolation for NC machining and the algorithm of monotonism analysis for optimization. He and his team developed NC equipment and software packages on mechanical CAD, which have been widely used in the fields of machinery, aeronautics, astronautics, and energy. Dr. Zhou has written 11 books, published more than 200 papers, and has been honored several times with the State Award for Science and Technology Progress.