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Dr. Axelrad has been an active member of the Institute of Navigation (ION) since 1985, and has held several positions in the organization, including president, associate editor of Navigation, student session chair, space representative, Western Region vice president, chair of the ION GPS Program, and secretary of the Satellite Division. She is a fellow of ION and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), a senior member of IEEE, and a member of Sigma Xi. In 1994–1995 Dr. Axelrad served on the National Research Council Committee on the Future of GPS. In recognition of her contributions to the field, she has received the 1996 Lawrence Sperry Award from AIAA and the 2009 Johannes Kepler Award and 2003 Tycho Brahe Award from ION.

LANCE A. DAVIS is the executive officer of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). Under Congressional charter, the NAE provides advice to the federal government, when requested, on matters of science and technology. As chief operating officer of the NAE, Dr. Davis is responsible for the program, financial, and membership operations and reports directly to the NAE president.

Prior to joining the NAE, Dr. Davis served as deputy director, Defense Research and Engineering (Laboratory Management and Technology Transition) at the Pentagon from 1994 to 1999. In this capacity, he exercised oversight responsibility for the $11 billion Department of Defense (DOD) laboratory system and DOD dual-use and technology-transfer activities. He chaired the Lab Consolidation Working Group charged with restructuring the DOD laboratory system and the Affordability Task Force charged with balancing the cost/ performance equation in Defense Science and Technology. Other major activities included the Quadrennial Defense Review, Lab Quality Improvement Program, Lab Diversification Program, Small Business Innovation Research, Industry IR&D, Manufacturing Science and Technology, and the Defense Technical Information Center.

Dr. Davis spent most of his career in industry at Allied-Signal Inc. (now Honeywell). He joined Allied Chemical as a research scientist in 1968 and moved through a succession of R&D management positions leading to appointment as vice president of Corporate Research and Development (R&D) in 1984. He continued in this capacity until joining DOD in 1994. As vice president of R&D, he was responsible for a corporate staff of up to 450 people with an annual expense budget in current dollars of about $100 million and a capital budget of $15 million, and engaged in research and new product development related to metals, ceramics, crystal growth, electro-optics, device fabrication, thin film deposition, polymer chemistry, engineered plastics, fibers and films, composites and biotechnology.

Dr. Davis graduated summa cum laude from Lafayette College in 1961 with a B.S. in metallurgical engineering. He received a master’s of engineering in 1963 and a Ph.D. in engineering and applied science from Yale University in 1966. He spent two years as a postdoctoral fellow at Yale University before joining Allied. Dr. Davis is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and Tau Beta Pi. He was elected to



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