Cover Image

PAPERBACK
$65.00



View/Hide Left Panel

Global Navigation
Satellite Systems

Report of a Joint Workshop of the National Academy of Engineering
and the Chinese Academy of Engineering

 

 

Edited by Lance A. Davis, Per K. Enge, and Grace X. Gao

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

 

 

 

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Edited by Lance A. Davis, Per K. Enge, and Grace X. Gao THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

OCR for page R1
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: This publication has been reviewed according to procedures approved by the National Academy of Engineering report review process. Publication of signed work signi - fies that it is judged a competent and useful contribution worthy of public consideration, but it does not imply endorsement of conclusions or recommendations by the National Academy of Engineering. The interpretations and conclusions in such publications are those of the authors and do not purport to present the views of the council, officers, or staff of the National Academy of Engineering. This project was supported by funding from the National Academies and the National Academy of Engineering Fund. Any opinions, finding, or conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the workshop participants. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-22275-4 International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-22275-3 Copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (888) 624-8373 or (202) 334-3313; www.nap.edu. For more information about the National Academy of Engineering, visit the NAE home page at www.nae.edu. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a man - date that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examina - tion of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien - tific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
WORKSHOP STEERING COMMITTEE BRADFORD W. PARKINSON, Edward C. Wells Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics Emeritus, Stanford University PER K. ENGE, Professor, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University LIU JINGNAN, Member, Chinese Academy of Engineering Staff LANCE A. DAVIS, Executive Officer, National Academy of Engineering GRACE X. GAO, Rapporteur and Engineering Research Associate, Global Positioning System Laboratory, Stanford University PENELOPE GIBBS, Senior Program Associate, NAE Program Office PROCTOR P. REID, Director, NAE Program Office v

OCR for page R1
U.S. DELEGATION National Academy of Engineering CHARLES M. VEST, President, National Academy of Engineering LANCE A. DAVIS, Executive Officer, National Academy of Engineering PER K. ENGE, Professor, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University BRADFORD W. PARKINSON, Edward C. Wells Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics Emeritus, Stanford University PROCTOR P. REID, Director, Program Office, National Academy of Engineering CHARLES R. TRIMBLE, Chairman, U.S. Global Positioning System Industry Council GPS Systems and Application Experts PENINA AXELRAD, Professor, Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, University of Colorado, Boulder GRACE GAO, Engineering Research Associate, Global Positioning System Laboratory, Stanford University RITA LOLLOCK, General Manager, Navigation Division, The Aerospace Corporation MICHAEL O’CONNOR, Consultant and Principal, O’C and Associates THOMAS D. POWELL, Systems Director, Navigation Division, The Aerospace Corporation STUART RILEY, Manager, Signal Processing and Electronic Hardware Group, Engineering and Construction Division, Trimble Navigation A.J. VAN DIERENDONCK, GNSS Consultant, AJ Systems TODD WALTER, Senior Research Engineer, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University U.S. Government LEO ELDREDGE, Manager, GNSS Group, Air Traffic Organization, Federal Aviation Administration DAVID A. TURNER, Deputy Director, Space and Advanced Technology, U.S. Department of State vi

OCR for page R1
CHINESE DELEGATION Chinese Academy of Engineering ZHOU JI, President BAI YULIANG, Secretary General LIU JINGNAN, CAE member SHEN RONGJUN, CAE member WANG LIHENG, CAE member Department of International Cooperation of CAE XU JIN, Deputy Director-General ZHENG XIAOGUANG, Assistant Director-General WANG XIAOWEN, Deputy Director YUAN MIN, Program Officer Chinese Academy of Sciences SUN JIADONG, CAS Member YANG YUANXI, CAS Member Research Institutes CHEN JINGPING, Senior Engineer, Beijing Global Information Center of Application and Exploitation DING QUN, Researcher, Xi’an Research Institute of Navigation DING XIANCHENG, Researcher, China Electronics Technology Group Corporation DU XIAODONG, Researcher, Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry LI ZUHONG, Researcher, China Academy of Space Technology LU XIAOCHUN, Researcher, National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences TAN SHUSEN, Researcher, Beijing Global Information Center of Application and Exploitation WANG LI, Researcher, China Aerospace Science and Technology Consultant Corporation WU HAITAO, Researcher, Satellite Navigation Headquarters, Chinese Academy of Sciences Corporation HAN SHAOWEI, Researcher, Unicore Communications Inc. vii

OCR for page R1
Chinese Government CAI LANBO, Vice Director, China Satellite Navigation Office GUO SHUREN, Researcher, China Satellite Navigation Office LU JUN, Senior Engineer, China Satellite Navigation Office RAN CHENGQI, Director, China Satellite Navigation Office YANG CHANGFENG, Deputy Chief Designer of Beidou Navigation Satellite System YANG JUN, Vice Director, China Satellite Navigation Office Industry Administrative Departments BAI SHULIN, Deputy Director, Joint Center of GNSS, Ministry of Education, China, and Deputy Director, Advanced Technology Institute, Peking University LU XIAOPING, Inspector, Civil Aviation Administration of China viii

OCR for page R1
Preface The Global Positioning System (GPS) has revolutionized the measurement of position, velocity, and time. It has rapidly evolved into a worldwide utility with more than a billion receiver sets currently in use. Applications include emergency services, aircraft landing, farm tractor auto steering, and measurements of Earth tectonic motion, with new applications appearing every year. There are enormous benefits to humanity: improved safety of life, increased productivity, and wide- spread convenience. Recognizing this utility, Russia is rejuvenating its satellite navigation system, GLONASS. Other nations are now deploying new Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) of their own: the European Galileo system and the Chinese System called Compass or BeiDou. Regional satellite systems are also being deployed: Japan’s Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) and the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS). All of humanity will benefit if these systems can operate as one super system, with users able to navigate using any four satellites. The GPS constellation may decline in size over the next five years (from the current 31 satellites). This will reduce signal availability for those GPS-only users whose views of the sky are restricted by mountains, canopy, and/or city buildings. An expanded constellation of satellites providing more signals would significantly improve system access and reliability for these sky-impaired users. Moreover, a frequency diversity of signals provided by an expanded constellation would help mitigate inadvertent radio frequency interference with the weak GPS signal. The deployment of the new and modernized satellite systems has the potential to greatly reduce signal outages—but only if their system and signal specifications are well understood, interoperable, and officially supported so that receivers can ix

OCR for page R1
x PREFACE be manufactured and their integrity assessed. The Russians and Europeans have provided significant information to the United States with respect to their signal and systems details. At the time of the workshop, held on May 24 and 25, 2011, in Shanghai, China, the Chinese authorities had not released an official descrip - tion of its civil signals, and many of the U.S. delegates expressed a wish for this critical information. As the report was going to press, China released this crucial document in December 2011, seven months after the workshop described herein occurred. Our bilateral workshop’s goal was to promote technical and policy-related cooperation between the United States and China regarding their respective navi - gation satellite systems—the U.S. Global Positioning System and the Chinese Compass system—to the benefit of China, the United States, and GNSS users worldwide. The workshop sought to encourage greater transparency regarding the technical and operational details that would allow the two countries to exchange system- and signal-level specifications. The recent exchange of data will improve the accuracy and availability of real-time position, navigation, and time data for all users worldwide. This exchange will foster the interchangeability of satellite signals, which will greatly decrease outages, particularly for sky-impaired users. The workshop organizers would like to thank the National Academy of Engineering and the Chinese Academy of Engineering for their support of this workshop. We would also like to thank all the workshop participants for their thoughtful presentations and discussion. Bradford W. Parkinson Per K. Enge Liu Jingnan

OCR for page R1
Acknowledgments This summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies. The purpose of the independent review is to provide candid and critical comments to assist the NAE in making its pub - lished report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Charles Trimble, GPS Industry Council Charles Elachi, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Thomas Herring, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Anthony Russo, National Coordination Office for Space-Based Positioning, Navigation and Timing Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the views expressed in the report, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Julia M. Phillips, Sandia National Laboratories. Appointed by NAE, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional proce - dures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and NAE. xi

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Contents Summary of the Workshop 1 As Reported by Grace Xingxin Gao Address at the Opening Ceremony of the NAE-CAE Joint Workshop on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) 11 Zhou Ji Introductory Remarks 13 Charles M. Vest WORKSHOP PRESENTATIONS (In the order of the workshop. Representing the views of the authors as presented by the speaker noted on the agenda, Appendix A.) Development of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System 17 Ran Chengqi U.S. GPS Policy, Programs and International Cooperation Activities 25 David A. Turner Research Report on GNSS Interoperability 35 Lu Xiaochun, Lu Jun, Bai Yan, Han Tao, and Wang Xue xiii

OCR for page R1
xiv GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS The Interchangeability Problem: Signals, Coordinate Frames, and Time 75 Rita M. Lollock, Thomas D. Powell, and Thomas A. Stansell COMPASS/BeiDou Coordinate and Time Reference Systems 83 Yang Yuanxi, Tang Jing, and Han Chunhao A Global Safety of Life Service from Multiple GNSS Constellations 95 Per Enge Monitoring and Assessment of GNSS Open Services 105 Jiao Wenhai, Ding Qun, Li Jian-wen, Lu Xiaochun, and Feng Laiping Alternative Position, Navigation, and Timing: The Need for Robust Radionavigation 119 Mitchell J. Narins, Leo V. Eldredge, Per Enge, Sherman C. Lo, Michael J. Harrison, and Randy Kenagy Analysis of the GNSS Augmentation Technology Architecture 137 Chen Jinping Impact of Intentional, Low Power, In-Band, Personal Privacy Devices (PPDs) on Aviation 147 A.J. Van Dierendonck GNSS Open Signals Interference Issues and Countermeasures 153 Du Xiaodong, Wang Feixue, and Nie Junwei Present and Future Applications of COMPASS Navigation Satellite System 167 Tan Shusen Application of GNSS to Environmental Studies 179 Penina Axelrad Recent Progress on GNSS Seismology 189 Liu Jingnan, Fang Rongxin, and Shi Chuang Precision Agriculture: Opportunities and Challenges 199 Michael O’Connor Integrity Lessons from the WAAS Integrity Performance Panel 207 Todd Walter, Per Enge, and Bruce DeCleene

OCR for page R1
xv INTRODUCTION Breaking the Ice: Navigation in the Arctic 229 Grace Xingxin Gao, Liang Heng, Todd Walter, and Per Enge APPENDIXES Appendix A Workshop Agenda 243 Appendix B Workshop Summary Record 247 Appendix C Biographical Information 251 Appendix D Acronyms 265

OCR for page R1