TABLE 1-1 Diseases and Conditions Caused by Active Cigarette Smokinga

Disease Effects
Malignant neoplasmsb Tumor sites for which there is sufficient evidence:
  •  Oral cavity
  •  Oropharynx, nasopharynx, and hypopharynx
  •  Oesophagus (adenocarcinoma and squamouscell carcinoma)
  •  Stomach
  •  Colorectum
  •  Liver
  •  Pancreas
  •  Nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
  •  Larynx
  •  Lung
  •  Uterine cervix
  •  Ovary (mucinous)
  •  Urinary bladder
  •  Kidney (body and pelvis)
  •  Ureter
  •  Bone marrow (myeloid leukaemia)
  Tumor site for which there is limited evidence:
  •  Female breast
Cardiovascular •  Coronary heart disease
diseases •  Cerebrovascular disease
  •  Atherosclerosis
  •  Aortic aneurysm
Respiratory diseases in adults •  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (bronchitis, emphysema, chronic airway obstruction)
  •  Pneumonia
  •  Premature onset of and an accelerated age-related decline in lung function
  •  All major respiratory symptoms (e.g., coughing, phlegm, wheezing, dyspnea)
  •  Poor asthma control
Respiratory •  Impaired lung growth
diseases in young people •  Respiratory symptoms and asthma-related symptoms (e.g., wheezing) in childhood and adolescence
  •  Early onset of lung function decline during late adolescence and early adulthood

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement