of Reporting Trials (CONSORT), which was first published in 1996 and updated in 2001 and 2010, to provide a checklist and flow diagram intended to improve the reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (Moher et al., 2010a). Other familiar reporting guidelines include

  • STARD (STAndards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies)
  • STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology)
  • REMARK (REporting recommendations for tumor MARKer prognostic studies)
  • MIAME (Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment)
  • PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses)
  • BRISQ (Biospecimen Reporting for Improved Study Quality)

Reporting guidelines are distinct from prescribing the methods used in the conduct of research. Although reporting focuses on describing the methods used in a specific study, it does not necessarily mean that a well-reported study is a high-quality study. However, the rationale is that reporting guidelines, by transparently and thoroughly describing the methods employed and results obtained, can help investigators assess the quality of a study.


In the 2007 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report Cancer Biomarkers: The Promises and Challenges of Improving Detection and Treatment, the committee noted that different sets of reporting guidelines would need to be developed depending on the technologies involved in a study, whether a single biomarker versus panels or patterns of biomarkers is being investigated, and the intended applications of the study. Table D-1 lists several reporting guidelines relevant to omics-based research. In addition, in June 2011, a group of 20 methodologists, clinicians, and journal editors from around the world convened to develop reporting guidelines for studies to develop and/or validate multivariable prediction models. The intended output of this meeting included the publication of a reporting guideline checklist that describes the guideline development process, as well as a longer explanatory publication that mirrors those produced for other reporting guidelines (Collins, 2011). Box D-1 describes the REMARK guideline as an example of a reporting guideline checklist. REMARK, first published in 2005, was developed to address a number of inadequacies of reporting that are prevalent in tumor marker prognostic studies (McShane et al., 2005).

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