Angiography—X-ray visualization of blood vessels that have been injected with a radiographic contrast dye.

Apoptosis—a type of cell death in which a series of molecular steps in a cell leads to its death. This is the body’s normal way of getting rid of unneeded or abnormal cells.

Archival tissue—biological specimens collected from patients and stored for possible future use in medical care or research.

Area under the receiver operating curve (AUC)—a measure of the ability of a test to accurately discriminate a result indicating a particular disease state from a result not indicating that disease state.

Aromatase inhibitor—a drug that prevents the formation of the hormone estradiol. It is a type of hormone therapy for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

Assay—a biochemical or other measurement developed to quantify a biomarker.

Baseline corrected—allows for the removal of background “noise” or unnecessary peaks by running a blank set of samples that are subtracted from the data.

Batch effects—groups of measurements with different testing results because of variability in conditions such as testing on different days or by different equipment operators, rather than scientific or biological differences between samples.

Bias—the systematic but unintentional erroneous association of some characteristic with a group in a way that distorts a comparison with another group.

Bioinformatics—a field of study focused on developing fast, efficient computational procedures for data reduction, data mining, and literature search techniques and developing biologically informative annotations related to DNA/RNA sequence, gene/protein expression, or the interaction of pathways, networks, phenotypes, and druggable targets.

Biological plausibility—data elucidating the biological pathways underpinning a causal association.

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