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Conclusion During past eras of challenge and change, our on the moon. It also developed new technologies national leaders have acted decisively to create in- such as computers, the Internet, global positioning novative partnerships that enabled our universities systems, and new medical procedures and phar- to enhance American security and prosperity. maceuticals that contribute immensely to national prosperity, security, and public health. While engaged in the Civil War, Congress passed the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862 to forge a Today our nation faces new challenges and a partnership between the federal government, time of rapid economic, social, and political the states, higher education, and industry aimed transformation driven by an exponential growth at creating universities capable of providing in knowledge and innovation. A decade into the practical education and conducting the applied 21st century, a resurgent America must stimulate research needed to make America a world leader its economy, address new threats, and position in agriculture and industry. Among the results itself in a competitive world transformed by tech- were the green revolution in agriculture that fed nology, global competitiveness, and geopolitical the world, an American manufacturing industry change. In this environment, educated people, that became the economic engine of the 20th the knowledge they produce, and the innovation century and the arsenal of democracy during and entrepreneurial skills they possess, particularly two world wars, and an educated middle class in the fields of science and engineering, are keys that would transform the United States into the to our nation’s future. strongest nation on Earth. It is essential that we reaffirm and revitalize the Emerging from the Great Depression and World unique partnership that has long existed among War II, Congress acted once again to strengthen the nation’s research universities, federal govern- this partnership by investing heavily in basic re- ment, states, philanthropy, and business. The search and graduate education to build the world’s actions recommended here will require significant finest research universities, capable of providing policy changes, productivity enhancement, and a steady stream of well-educated graduates and investments on the part of each member of the scientific and technological innovations. This research partnership. Yet they also comprise a fair expanded research partnership enabled the United and balanced program that will generate signifi- States to win the Cold War and put an astronaut cant returns for a stronger America. 21

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COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH UNIVERSITIES Chad Holliday, Chair, Chairman of the Board, Bank of America, and Chairman and CEO, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (DuPont) (retired) [NAE] Peter Agre, University Professor and Director, Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University [NAS/IOM] Enriqueta Bond, President, Burroughs Wellcome Fund (retired) [IOM] C. W. Paul Chu, T. L. L. Temple Chair of Science and Professor of Physics, University of Houston, and Former President, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology [NAS] Francisco Cigarroa, Chancellor, The University of Texas System [IOM] James Duderstadt, President Emeritus and University Professor of Science and Engineering, University of Michigan [NAE] Ronald Ehrenberg, Irving M. Ives Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations and Economics, and Director, Cornell Higher Education Research Institute, Cornell University William Frist, Distinguished University Professor, Owen Graduate School of Management, Vanderbilt University, and U.S. Senator (retired) William Green, Chairman and CEO, Accenture John Hennessy, President and Bing Presidential Professor, Stanford University [NAS/NAE] Walter Massey, President, School of the Art Institute of Chicago, and President Emeritus, Morehouse College Burton McMurtry, Former Silicon Valley Venture Capitalist and Former Chair, Stanford University Board of Trustees Ernest Moniz, Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Physics and Engineering Systems, Director of the Energy Initiative, and Director of the Laboratory for Energy and the Environment at the MIT Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Heather Munroe-Blum, Principal (President) and Vice Chancellor, and Professor, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University Cherry Murray, Dean, Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, John A. and Elizabeth S. Armstrong Professor of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and Professor of Physics, Harvard University [NAS/NAE] Hunter Rawlings, President Emeritus and Professor of Classical History, Cornell University* John Reed, Chairman of the MIT Corporation and Chairman and CEO, Citigroup (retired) Teresa Sullivan, President, University of Virginia Sidney Taurel, Chairman and CEO, Eli Lilly & Company (retired) Lee T. Todd, Jr., President, University of Kentucky Laura D’Andrea Tyson, S. K. and Angela Chan Chair in Global Management, Haas School of Business, University of California Berkeley Padmasree Warrior, Chief Technology Officer, Cisco Systems *Hunter Rawlings resigned in May 2011 upon his appointment as President, Association of American Universities. More information about this report can be found at http://national-academies.org/researchuniversities. Photo and Figure Credits Page 6: Source: Peter M. McPherson, Association of Public and Land-grant Universities, presentation to report committee, November 2010; 8 (left): image courtesy of NASA; 8 (right): photo by Peter Rejcek, National Science Foundation; 10 (left): Jim Varney/Science Photo Library; 10 (right): photo courtesy of Janet Chapple; 11: Source: Sally Rockey, National Institutes of Health, presentation to report committee, November 2010; 12-13: Eileen Barroso/Columbia University; 14 (left): iStockphoto; 14 (right): image courtesy NCSA; 15: Source: Council of Graduate Schools, Ph.D. Completion and Attrition: Analysis of Baseline Program Data from the Ph.D. Completion Project (2008); 16 (top 3 images): U.S. Census Bureau/Public Information Office; 16 (bottom right): Photodisc; 17: Source: University of California Los Angeles, Higher Education Research Institute, Degrees of Success: Bachelor’s Degree Completion Rates among Initial STEM Majors (2010); 18 (left): photo by Minden/Visual V Photos; 18 (right): iStockphoto; 19: Source: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities (2009); 20: jupiterimages 22

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org