Visa and Travel Restrictions
Many participants stated that visa and other travel policies need to encourage, not hinder, the initiation and continuation of scientific cooperation. They expressed concern that real and perceived visa problems can have serious repercussions, such as an increasing number of researchers looking for opportunities in other countries instead of the United States.
Application of Science Diplomacy
Workshop presentations, summaries of experiences, and discussions included many examples in which scientific cooperation or contact between technical experts had major value in building bridges and positive relationships in otherwise difficult international situations.
Several participants also acknowledged the capacity for cooperative activity in many U.S. government departments and technical agencies, as well as in private–public science partnerships, and emphasized that, to realize the benefits of science diplomacy on a large scale, institutional resources are necessary such as staffing in both Washington, DC, and U.S. embassies. Other participants noted that science, when mobilized as a means of governmental diplomacy, should be carried out consistent with essential scientific methods, such as balanced consideration of all relevant evidence.
This report, structured according to the workshop agenda into a section on U.S. Policy for Global Science and one on Science for Diplomacy—Diplomacy for Science, presents the workshop discussions on these issues in more detail.