and state public policymaking for U.S. network seismology and earthquake risk reduction. Since 1977, Dr. Arabasz has performed routine and ongoing professional consulting relating to earthquake hazards and risk for dams, nuclear facilities, and other critical structures and facilities. He is a member of the Seismological Society of America, American Geophysical Union, and Geological Society of America. In 2008, Arabasz was the recipient of Western States Seismic Policy Council Lifetime Achievement Award in Earthquake Risk Reduction, for extraordinary commitment, level of service, and contribution of the application of earthquake risk reduction to public policy. National Research Council service includes membership on the Committee on Seismology (1989-1994), Panel on Regional Networks (1988-1990), and Panel on Seismic Hazard Evaluation (1992-1996). He received his Ph.D. in geology and geophysics from the California Institute of Technology.

Julia E. Cole is a Professor of Geosciences within the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Arizona. Her research centers on expanding our view of recent climate variability using geological and biological proxies for climate along with instrumental records and climate models. Common themes include the development of geochemical records from long-lived corals and sediments, the variability and impacts of large-scale climate systems throughout the tropical oceans, and stable isotopes in the hydrologic cycle. She has written or co-written over 60 publications. National Academy of Sciences service includes membership and assessments on the Climate Research Committee, Committee on Global Change Research, Panel on Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales, and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In 2008, Dr. Cole was awarded the Leopold Leadership Fellowship in environmental communication and policy. She received her M.S. and Ph.D. from Columbia University.

W. Gary Ernst (NAS) is Benjamin M. Page Professor of Earth Sciences, Emeritus, in the Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences at Stanford University. On the Stanford faculty since 1989 as Dean of the School of Earth Sciences (1989-1994) and Professor, he became emeritus in 2004. Prior to Stanford, Dr. Ernst spent 30 years at the University of California Los Angeles as Professor in the Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics. Author of seven books and research memoirs, editor or co-editor of 19 others, Ernst is author or co-author of more than 260 scientific papers dealing with physical chemistry of rocks and minerals; Phanero-zoic interactions of lithospheric plates and orogenic belts, especially in central Asia, the Circumpacific and the western Alps; early Precambrian petrotectonic evolution; high- and ultrahigh-pressure subduction-zone metamorphism and tectonics; geobotanical studies/ remote sensing; and geology and human health. A member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society, Ernst was president of the Mineralogical Society of America (1980-1981) and

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