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importance of a subject to their future studies, career, or advancement. The PISA survey questions are available in any PISA report, but she would send them to Didion to share with the participants.11

Frehill reported that the U.S. Census Bureau recently added “field of study” as a question on the 2009 American Community Survey, which has opened the door to analyzing some of the issues raised in Salvi Del Pero’s presentation. Previously in the United States, the National Science Foundation (NSF) surveys that the Science and Engineering Statistical Analysis System conducted were the only way to examine the connection between college majors and careers. Now, this examination is possible for a wider population. Frehill also asked Salvi Del Pero to elaborate on the type of work being done in relation to gender differences within entrepreneurship.

Salvi Del Pero stated that she did not address the entrepreneurial dimension in the presentation because of time constraints. She acknowledged that work in this area is still in its infancy. In fall 2010, the project team prepared a scope paper outlining the literature relevant to the project. They noticed that no cross-national comparison data were available concerning entrepreneurship. They decided to take advantage of another project initiated by the OECD entrepreneurial indicators program and added a gender dimension to it. They are in the process of collecting these data. Salvi Del Pero was unsure whether the findings would be available to include in their final report.

Discussion Following Ogawa Remarks

During the question and comment session of Ogawa’s presentation, MacLachlan noted one other historical fact: the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in the United States did so around 1888, which was approximately 100 years behind Europe.

Question and Answer Following MacLachlan Remarks

Alice Popejoy from the Association of Women in Science (AWIS) mentioned that AWIS obtained a grant from NSF to explore disciplinary societies. She asked MacLachlan to elaborate on the point she made in the presentation about professional societies and disciplinary societies.

MacLachlan clarified that professional and disciplinary societies had a rather substantial role regarding barriers to women’s participation in chemistry, mathematics, and computer science. When these organizations were established in the United States, most members knew one another (the membership was small). As they grew, they often maintained this club-like characteristic. Therefore, as women became part of the field, they were not always received with enthusiasm. For example, women were not allowed into the University of California, Berkeley faculty association until 1964.

Discussion Following Abreu Remarks

Daryl Chubin, director of the Center for Advancing Science and Engineering Capacity at the American Association for the Advancement of Science commented that Abreu’s presentation regarding horizontal segregation raised interesting measurement issues. He stated


11 To view the sample questions from OECD’s PISA Assessments at: Accessed August 21, 2012.

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